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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

A Tissue-specific Variant of the Human Lysyl Oxidase-like Protein 3 ( LOXL3) Functions as an Amine Oxidase with Substrate Specificity.

The human lysyl oxidase-like 3 ( LOXL3) encodes a member of the emerging family of lysyl oxidase (LOX) that functions as a copper-dependent amine oxidase. The LOXL3 protein contains four scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domains in the N terminus in addition to the C-terminal characteristic domains of the LOX family, such as a copper binding domain, a cytokine receptor-like domain and residues for the lysyl-tyrosyl quinone cofactor. Using BLASTN searches, we identified a LOXL3 variant LOXL3-sv1 that lacked the sequences corresponding to exons 1, 2, 3, and 5 of LOXL3. LOXL3-sv1 showed an exon-intron structure distinct from LOXL3, additionally containing an 80-bp sequence corresponding to intron 3 of LOXL3 in the 5'-UTR and a 561-bp sequence corresponding to the 3'-flanking genomic region of exon 14 in the 3'-UTR. LOXL3-sv1 was predicted to encode a polypeptide of 392 amino acids that contains the C-terminal domains required for amine oxidase activity but lacks the N-terminal SRCR domains 1, 2, and 3. The recombinant LOXL3-sv1 protein showed a beta-aminopropionitrile-inhibitable amine oxidase activity toward elastin and collagen with substrate specificity. In RT-PCR assays with various human tissues, LOXL3-sv1 and LOXL3 showed distinct expression patterns. Further, luciferase reporter assays revealed a strong promoter element in intron 3 that probably functions as a regulatory region for the expression of LOXL3-sv1. These findings strongly indicate that LOXL3 encodes two variants, LOXL3 and LOXL3-sv1, both of which function as amine oxidases with distinct tissue and substrate specificities from one another.[1]


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