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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Polyoma and SV40 proteins differentially regulate PP2A to activate distinct cellular signaling pathways involved in growth control.

Binding of Src family kinases to membrane-associated polyoma virus middle T-antigen (PyMT) can result in the phosphorylation of PyMT tyrosine 250, which serves as a docking site for the binding of Shc and subsequent activation of the Raf-MEK-ERK (MAP) kinase cascade. In a screen for PyMT variants that could not activate the ARF tumor suppressor, we isolated a cytoplasmic nontransforming mutant (MTA) that encoded a C-terminal truncated form of the PyMT protein. Surprisingly, MTA was able to strongly activate the MAP kinase pathway in the absence of Src family kinase and Shc binding. Interestingly, the polyoma small T-antigen (PyST), which shares with MTA both partial amino acid sequence homology and cellular location, also activates the MAP kinase cascade. Activation of the MAP kinase cascade by both MTA and PyST has been demonstrated to be PP2A-dependent. Neither MTA nor PyST activate the phosphorylation of AKT. The SV40 small T-antigen, which is similar to PyST in containing a J domain and in binding to the PP2A AC dimer, does not activate the MAP kinase cascade, but does stimulate phosphorylation of AKT in a PP2A-dependent manner. These findings highlight a novel role of PP2A in stimulating the MAP kinase cascade and indicate that the similar polyoma and SV40 small T-antigens influence PP2A to activate discrete cellular signaling pathways involved in growth control.[1]


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