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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

A Metabolic Screening Study of Trichostatin A (TSA) and TSA-Like Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors in Rat and Human Primary Hepatocyte Cultures.

Hydroxamic acid (HA)-based histone deacetylase ( HDAC) inhibitors, with trichostatin A (TSA) as the reference compound, are potential antitumoral drugs and show promise in the creation of long-term primary cell cultures. However, their metabolic properties have barely been investigated. TSA is rapidly inactivated in rodents both in vitro and in vivo. We previously found that 5-(4-dimethylaminobenzoyl)aminovaleric acid hydroxyamide or 4-Me(2)N-BAVAH (compound 1) is metabolically more stable upon incubation with rat hepatocyte suspensions. In this study, we show that human hepatocytes also metabolize TSA more rapidly than compound 1 and that similar pathways are involved. Furthermore, structural analogs of compound 1 (compounds 2-9) are reported to have the same favorable metabolic properties. Removal of the dimethylamino substituent of compound 1 creates a very stable but 50% less potent inhibitor. Chain lengthening (4 to 5 carbon spacer) slightly improves both potency and metabolic stability, favoring HA reduction to hydrolysis. On the other hand, Calpha-unsaturation and spacer methylation not only reduce HDAC inhibition but also increase the rate of metabolic inactivation approximately 2-fold, mainly through HA reduction. However, in rat hepatocyte monolayer cultures, compound 1 is shown to be extensively metabolized by phase II conjugation. In conclusion, this study suggests that simple structural modifications of amide-linked TSA analogs can improve their phase I metabolic stability in both rat and human hepatocyte suspensions. Phase II glucuronidation, however, can compensate for their lower phase I metabolism in rat hepatocyte monolayers and could play a yet unidentified role in the determination of their in vivo clearance.[1]


  1. A Metabolic Screening Study of Trichostatin A (TSA) and TSA-Like Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors in Rat and Human Primary Hepatocyte Cultures. Elaut, G., Laus, G., Alexandre, E., Richert, L., Bachellier, P., Tourwé, D., Rogiers, V., Vanhaecke, T. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2007) [Pubmed]
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