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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

IRAK-2 participates in multiple toll-like receptor signaling pathways to NFkappaB via activation of TRAF6 ubiquitination.

Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling is known to involve interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinases (IRAKs), however the particular role of IRAK-2 has remained unclear. Further, although IRAK-1 was originally thought to be central for the TLR-NFkappaB signaling axis, recent data have shown that it is dispensable for NFkappaB activation for some TLRs and demonstrated an alternative role for it in interferon regulatory factor activation. Here we show that IRAK-2 is critical for the TLR-mediated NFkappaB activation pathway. The poxviral TLR antagonist A52 inhibited NFkappaB activation by TLR2, -3, -4, -5, -7, and -9 ligands, via its interaction with IRAK-2, while not affecting interferon regulatory factor activation. Knockdown of IRAK-2 expression by small interfering RNA suppressed TLR3, TLR4, and TLR8 signaling to NFkappaB in human cell lines, and importantly, TLR4-mediated chemokine production in primary human cells. IRAK-2 usage by different TLRs was distinct, because it acted downstream of the TLR adaptors MyD88 and Mal but upstream of TRIF. Expression of IRAK-2, but not IRAK-1, led to TRAF6 ubiquitination, an event critical for NFkappaB activation. Further, IRAK-2 loss-of-function mutants, which could not activate NFkappaB, were incapable of promoting TRAF6 ubiquitination. Thus we propose that IRAK-2 plays a more central role than IRAK-1 in TLR signaling to NFkappaB.[1]


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