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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

The anticoagulant effect in heparinized blood and plasma resulting from interactions with extrinsic pathway inhibitor.

The influence of Extrinsic pathway inhibitor (EPI) on global clotting times of plasma was studied using activity-blocking IgG antibodies. Dilute tissue thromboplastin (TP) clotting times in plasma collected after intravenous injection of heparin were dramatically shortened by the addition of anti-EPI IgG. Anti-EPI IgG shortened the TP times to a lesser degree in plasma heparinized in vitro. Compared to plasma heparinized in vitro, the TP clotting times were markedly prolonged in post-heparin plasma of equal heparin concentration. Addition of anti-antithrombin IgG reduced the clotting times somewhat more than did anti-EPI IgG, particularly in normal plasma. In plasma from patients with cancer, about equal effect was obtained by blocking either EPI or antithrombin. These clotting time studies suggested that much of the anticoagulant effect caused by injection of heparin depended on EPI. This was confirmed by recording the release of fibrinopeptide A (FPA), as marker of thrombin generation, following addition of TP and CaCl2 to citrated blood. Thrombin generation was delayed and markedly reduced in post-heparin blood compared to that in normal blood. After incubating post-heparin citrated blood with anti-EPI IgG, the generation of FPA was more rapid; the amounts released 30 seconds after addition of TP were 6 times greater (36 vs 6 ng/ml) than in post-heparin blood without anti-EPI IgG. The subsequent FPA values were midway between pre-injection and post-heparin values. In conclusion, between one third and one half of the inhibition of TP-initiated coagulation in post-heparin plasma depends on EPI. This inhibition is mainly due to inactivation of the factor VIIa-TP complex. A small, but distinct contributing effect observed in the APTT assay (and hence no TP) indicates that even increased inactivation of activated factor X contributes. In cancer patients, these EPI-heparin interactions contribute even more to the anticoagulant effects of heparin.[1]


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