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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

High molecular weight kininogen inhibits thrombin-induced platelet aggregation and cleavage of aggregin by inhibiting binding of thrombin to platelets.

In this study we show that high molecular weight kininogen (HK) inhibited alpha-thrombin-induced aggregation of human platelets in a dose-dependent manner with complete inhibition occurring at plasma concentration (0.67 mumol/L) of HK. HK (0.67 mumol/L) also completely inhibited thrombin-induced cleavage of aggregin (Mr = 100 Kd), a surface membrane protein that mediates adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced shape change, aggregation, and fibrinogen binding. The inhibition of HK was specific for alpha- and gamma-thrombin-induced platelet aggregation, because HK did not inhibit platelet aggregation induced by ADP, collagen, calcium ionophore (A23187), phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), PMA + A23187, or 9,11-methano derivative of prostaglandin H2 (U46619). These effects were explained by the ability of HK, at physiologic concentration, to completely inhibit binding of 125I-alpha-thrombin to washed platelets. As a result of this action of HK, this plasma protein also completely inhibited thrombin-induced secretion of adenosine triphosphate, blocked intracellular rise in Ca2+ in platelets exposed to alpha- and gamma-thrombin, inhibited thrombin-induced platelet shape change, and blocked the ability of thrombin to antagonize the increase in intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels induced by iloprost. Because elevation of cAMP is known to inhibit binding of thrombin to platelets, we established that HK did not increase the intracellular concentration of platelet cAMP. Finally, HK did not inhibit enzymatic activity of thrombin. To study the role of HK in the plasma environment, we used gamma-thrombin to avoid fibrin formation by alpha-thrombin. Platelet aggregation induced by gamma-thrombin was also inhibited by HK in a dose-dependent manner. The EC50 (concentration to produce 50% of the maximum rate of aggregation) of gamma-thrombin for washed platelets was 7 nmol/L and increased to 102 nmol/L when platelets were suspended in normal human plasma. The EC50 for platelet aggregation induced by alpha-thrombin in plasma deficient in total kininogen was 40 nmol/L. When supplemented with HK at plasma concentration (0.67 mumol/L), the EC50 increased to 90 nmol/L, a value similar to that for normal human plasma. These results indicate that (1) HK inhibits thrombin-induced platelet aggregation and cleavage of aggregin by inhibiting binding of thrombin to platelets; (2) HK is a specific inhibitor of platelet aggregation induced by alpha- and gamma-thrombin; and (3) HK plays a role in modulating platelet aggregation stimulated by alpha-thrombin in plasma.[1]


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