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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Transcriptional analysis of endogenous and foreign genes in chloroplast transformants of Chlamydomonas.

Transcription from modified chloroplast genes has been studied in vitro, but only with the recently developed ability to stably introduce foreign DNA into Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplast chromosomes in situ has it become possible to do so in vivo. Cloned chloroplast DNA sequences, into which had been inserted chimeric genes composed of the GUS coding sequence reporter under transcriptional control of chloroplast promoters for the C. reinhardtii atpA, atpB, and rbcL genes, were introduced into the cells on microprojectiles. These constructs become integrated into chloroplast chromosomes by homologous recombination. RNA gel blot analyses demonstrated that a single major beta-glucuronidase (GUS)-hybridizing transcript accumulates in each chloroplast transformant. We have found that: (1) Transcription of the chimeric gene begins at the same site as in the corresponding endogenous chloroplast gene; (2) the rates of transcription in vivo of the atpA:GUS and atpB:GUS genes relative to one another and to other genes are the same as those for the endogenous atpA and atpB genes, respectively, indicating that these promoters are fully functional despite being fused to a foreign gene and being at an alien location on the chloroplast chromosome; (3) in contrast to the atpA and atpB promoters, the rbcL promoter directs transcription of the rbcL:GUS gene at only 1% of the expected rate, suggesting that other features are required for optimal activity of this promoter; and (4) 22 base pairs upstream of the 5' end of the atpB:GUS transcript in the atpB promoter element is sufficient to confer wild-type levels of promoter activity.[1]


  1. Transcriptional analysis of endogenous and foreign genes in chloroplast transformants of Chlamydomonas. Blowers, A.D., Ellmore, G.S., Klein, U., Bogorad, L. Plant Cell (1990) [Pubmed]
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