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Conantokin-T. A gamma-carboxyglutamate containing peptide with N-methyl-d-aspartate antagonist activity.

Conantokin-T, a 21-amino acid peptide which induces sleep-like symptoms in young mice was purified from the venom of the fish-hunting cone snail, Conus tulipa. The amino acid sequence of the peptide was determined and verified by chemical synthesis. The peptide has 4 residues of the modified amino acid, gamma-carboxyglutamate ( Gla). The sequence of the peptide is: Gly-Glu-Gla-Gla-Tyr-Gln-Lys-Met-Leu-Gla-Asn-Leu-Arg-Gla-Ala-Glu-Val-Lys- Lys-Asn-Ala-NH2. Conantokin-T inhibits N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated calcium influx in central nervous system neurons. This observation suggests that like conantokin-G (a homologous Conus peptide with recently identified NMDA antagonist activity) conantokin-T has NMDA antagonist activity. A sequence comparison of conantokins-T and -G identifies the 4 Gla residues and the N-terminal dipeptide sequence as potential key elements for the biological activity of this peptide.[1]


  1. Conantokin-T. A gamma-carboxyglutamate containing peptide with N-methyl-d-aspartate antagonist activity. Haack, J.A., Rivier, J., Parks, T.N., Mena, E.E., Cruz, L.J., Olivera, B.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
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