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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Molecular structures and evolution of mouse isozyme genes functioning in the malate-aspartate shuttle.

To examine molecular mechanisms of transcription of mammalian isozyme genes functioning in the malate-aspartate shuttle and to observe structural and evolutionary relationships, we investigated gene organizations of cAspAT and mAspAT, and cMDH and mMDH, and isolated and characterized cDNAs and genomic DNAs for these isozymes in mice. The deduced amino acid sequences of mouse cAspAT and mAspAT showed about 47%, and those of mouse cMDH and mMDH, about 23% overall homology. Surprisingly, the homology between the mouse cMDH and thermophilic bacterial MDH, as well as the homology between the mouse mMDH and E. coli MDH, markedly exceeds the intraspecies sequence homology between mMDH and cMDH from mice. The first duplication of a common ancestral MDH gene should thus have occurred long before the emergence of the eukaryotic cells, and subsequently, the mammalian mMDH and E. coli MDH genes have evolved from one of the duplicates. The mammalian cMDH and Thermus flavus MDH genes have no doubt evolved from one of the other duplicates. Moreover, structural organizations of the two-pairs of isozyme genes indicated that introns antedate the divergence of these mitochondrial and cytosolic isozyme genes. The 5' ends of all four isozyme genes lacked the TATA and CAAT boxes characteristic of eukaryotic promoters but did contain G + C-rich sequences and multiple transcription-initiation sites. We found several highly conserved regions in the 5' flanking sequences between mAspAT and cAspAT, between mMDH and mAspAT, and between cMDH and cAspAT genes.[1]


  1. Molecular structures and evolution of mouse isozyme genes functioning in the malate-aspartate shuttle. Shimada, K., Joh, T., Ding, S.H., Choudhury, B.K., Setoyama, C. Prog. Clin. Biol. Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
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