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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Apoptosis, cytokine and chemokine induction by non-structural 1 (NS1) proteins encoded by different influenza subtypes.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Influenza pandemic remains a serious threat to human health. Viruses of avian origin, H5N1, H7N7 and H9N2, have repeatedly crossed the species barrier to infect humans. Recently, a novel strain originated from swine has evolved to a pandemic. This study aims at improving our understanding on the pathogenic mechanism of influenza viruses, in particular the role of non-structural (NS1) protein in inducing pro-inflammatory and apoptotic responses. METHODS: Human lung epithelial cells (NCI-H292) was used as an in-vitro model to study cytokine/chemokine production and apoptosis induced by transfection of NS1 mRNA encoded by seven infleunza subtypes (seasonal and pandemic H1, H2, H3, H5, H7, and H9), respectively. RESULTS: The results showed that CXCL-10/IP10 was most prominently induced (> 1000 folds) and IL-6 was slightly induced (< 10 folds) by all subtypes. A subtype-dependent pattern was observed for CCL-2/MCP-1, CCL3/MIP-1α, CCL-5/RANTES and CXCL-9/MIG; where induction by H5N1 was much higher than all other subtypes examined. All subtypes induced a similar temporal profile of apoptosis following transfection. The level of apoptosis induced by H5N1 was remarkably higher than all others. The cytokine/chemokine and apoptosis inducing ability of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 was similar to previous seasonal strains. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the NS1 protein encoded by H5N1 carries a remarkably different property as compared to other avian and human subtypes, and is one of the keys to its high pathogenicity. NCI-H292 cells system proves to be a good in-vitro model to delineate the property of NS1 proteins.[1]


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