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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Fly pupae as attractant carriers for toxic baits for red imported fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

Eight laboratory-reared ant species were fed baits of house fly, Musca domestica L., pupae treated with hydramethylnon. Two fire ant species, Solenopsis invicta Buren and Solenopsis geminata (F.), and Pheidole morrissi (Forel) were killed; average percentage of mortality of the five other species was less than 20%. In contrast, all species that were fed the commercial fire ant bait containing hydramethylnon (Amdro) died or were adversely affected. In the field, applications of house fly pupae and eye gnat, Hippelates pusio Loew, pupae dipped in acetone solutions of fenoxycarb significantly reduced population indices of the red imported fire ant, S. invicta, compared with commercial formulations of fenoxycarb (Logic) and hydramethylnon (Amdro). Field observations showed that the pupae of either species can be carried or moved by one or two worker ants. The smooth, hard cuticle of the pupae make them easy to handle and apply with application equipment. The current cost of house fly pupae is considerably more than the cost of a granular carrier, pregel defatted corn grits. However, if mass-production methods reduce this price differential, fly pupae could become an effective and more species-specific fire ant bait carrier.[1]


  1. Fly pupae as attractant carriers for toxic baits for red imported fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Williams, D.F., Lofgren, C.S., Vander Meer, R.K. J. Econ. Entomol. (1990) [Pubmed]
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