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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Pupa

  • Amplification of the Bartonella citrate synthase gene from 83 Hippoboscidae was detected in 94% of 48 adult Lipoptena cervi flies, 71% of 17 adult Hippobosca equina flies, 100% of 20 adult Melophagus ovinus flies, and 100% of 10 M. ovinus pupae [1].
  • Parenteral injection of a low dose of Enterobacter cloacae resulted in 100% mortality of non parasitized pupae of Pieris brassicae; however, simultaneous injection of 3 microliters of anal secretion resulted in higher survival [2].
  • HSP90 expression was also up-regulated following cold- and heat-stresses in non-diapausing pupae [3].
  • The presence of MBL in insect pupae has not before been reported and could be important in pupal innate immunity to bacterial infection [4].
  • In nondiapausing pupae, the expression of two inducible Hsps (Hsp23 and Hsp70) is upregulated by desiccation, but the water loss threshold for Hsp expression changes at different rates of dehydration [5].

Psychiatry related information on Pupa


High impact information on Pupa

  • E78B encodes a truncated receptor isoform that lacks the DNA-binding domain and is predominantly expressed at puparium formation and immediately following E78A in pupae [7].
  • Drosophila c-src RNA is abundant in embryos and pupae but rare in larvae and adults [8].
  • We report here that, in pupae, fz produces a messenger RNA that encodes a protein with seven putative transmembrane domains [9].
  • Phosphorylase and glycerol production activated by cold in diapausing silkmoth pupae [10].
  • Lack of response to background colour in Pieris brassicae pupae reared on carotenoid-free diet [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Pupa


Biological context of Pupa

  • Truncated isoforms suppress the antiproliferative action of DNOS1 in the eye imaginal disc by impacting the retinoblastoma-dependent pathway, yielding hyperproliferative phenotypes in pupae and adult flies [16].
  • Laminin is detected only from 6 to 8 h of development onwards; its concentration increases during embryogenesis to reach steady-state value in larvae, pupae and adult flies [17].
  • Of these, mutants deficient in DNA repair, mei-41 and okra, show progressive degeneration of imaginal discs and die as pupae, while other genotypes survive to adulthood after irradiation [18].
  • The complex was found in larvae, pupae, and adults, consistent with p60 functioning as the adaptor for Dp110 throughout the Drosophila life cycle [19].
  • In imaginal discs and brains there is no detectable awd gene expression until the beginning of the third larval instar, despite the constant level of enzyme activity measured in extracts of larvae and pupae [20].

Anatomical context of Pupa

  • We now demonstrate that the IDE is present in other Drosophila cell lines and in the embryo, the larvae, the pupae, and adult tissues of the fruit fly [21].
  • Adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase A) purified from silkworm pupae phosphorylated five major fractions of calf thymus histone, whereas guanosine 3':5'-monophosphate-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase G) purified from the same organism reacted preferentially with H1, H2A, and H2B histones [22].
  • Developing bristles in Drosophila pupae contain 7-11 bundles of crosslinked actin filaments and a large population of microtubules [23].
  • We present in situ RNA localization data which demonstrate that elav is expressed in the central nervous system as well as the peripheral nervous system of embryos, larvae, pupae, and adults [24].
  • Phenoloxidase inhibitor (POI), found in the hemolymph of housefly pupae, is a novel dopa-containing and cystine-rich peptide that competitively inhibits phenoloxidase with a Ki in the nanomolar range [25].

Associations of Pupa with chemical compounds

  • Polyadenylic acid-containing transcripts of 2.7, 2.2, and 1.7 kilobases (kb) in embryos, pupae, adults, and Kc cells and an additional 1.4-kb transcript in adults were complementary to the Drosophila genomic clones and to v-myc [26].
  • Following injection into Manduca sexta (L.) female pupae (day 16), [14C]cholesterol was converted to a C21 steroid conjugate, 5-[14C]pregnen-3 beta,20 beta-diol glucoside [27].
  • Thus, although H. cecropia pupae have the enzymic machinery to biosynthesize sorbitol, they do not appear to accumulate high steady-state concentrations of this polyol over the temperature range studied [28].
  • Canavanine is also incorporated into the lysozyme induced by canavanine-treated pupae of the giant silk moth Hyalophora cecropia (Saturnidae) [29].
  • H. cecropia pupae injected with D-glucose labeled with 13C at C-1, C-2, or C-3 and subsequently analyzed by 13C NMR clearly demonstrated the ability to generate sorbitol and fructose [28].

Gene context of Pupa

  • A small peak of constitutive cecropin expression in early pupae appears to be caused by bacteria in the food [30].
  • CecA1 and A2 are most active in larvae and adults; CecB is preferentially active in early pupae [30].
  • The Hrb98DE locus is transcribed throughout development, with the highest transcript levels found in ovaries, early embryos, and pupae [31].
  • Ectopic expression of CnASH in wild-type late third instar Drosophila larvae and early pupae leads to the formation of ectopic sensory organs, mimicking the effect of ectopic expression of the endogenous achaete-scute genes [32].
  • Unlike mei-41 mutants, flies deficient for the true ATM ortholog, dATM, die as pupae or eclose with eye and wing abnormalities [33].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Pupa

  • In situ hybridization with an intron-specific probe indicated codistribution of immature and mature ard RNAs in pupae and adult flies [34].
  • Northern blot hybridization analysis revealed dMLF mRNA levels to be high in unfertilized eggs, early embryos, pupae and adult males, and relatively low in adult females and larvae [35].
  • Western blotting experiments revealed high levels of Tsf protein in pupae and adults [36].
  • However, both Hsp90 and Hsc70 were upregulated upon rehydration in nondiapausing and diapausing pupae [5].
  • Quantification of the iridoid glycoside content of larvae, pupae, adults, larval frass, and leaves of the larval host plant, C. bignonioides, by gas chromatography showed that leaves contained both catalpol and catalposide; larvae, pupae, and frass contained only catalpol; and the adults contained no detectable iridoid glycosides [37].


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  11. Lack of response to background colour in Pieris brassicae pupae reared on carotenoid-free diet. Rothschild, M., Gardiner, B., Valadon, G., Mummery, R. Nature (1975) [Pubmed]
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  15. Isolation of a Pseudomonas fluorescens metabolite/exotoxin active against both larvae and pupae of vector mosquitoes. Prabakaran, G., Paily, K.P., Padmanabhan, V., Hoti, S.L., Balaraman, K. Pest Manag. Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Regulation of multimers via truncated isoforms: a novel mechanism to control nitric-oxide signaling. Stasiv, Y., Kuzin, B., Regulski, M., Tully, T., Enikolopov, G. Genes Dev. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Expression of laminin and of a laminin-related antigen during early development of Drosophila melanogaster. Garzino, V., Berenger, H., Pradel, J. Development (1989) [Pubmed]
  18. Relative contribution of DNA repair, cell cycle checkpoints, and cell death to survival after DNA damage in Drosophila larvae. Jaklevic, B.R., Su, T.T. Curr. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
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  20. The expression of the Drosophila awd gene during normal development and in neoplastic brain tumors caused by lgl mutations. Timmons, L., Hersperger, E., Woodhouse, E., Xu, J., Liu, L.Z., Shearn, A. Dev. Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  21. Developmental regulation of an insulin-degrading enzyme from Drosophila melanogaster. Stoppelli, M.P., Garcia, J.V., Decker, S.J., Rosner, M.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
  22. Studies on the sites in histones phosphorylated by adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate-dependent and guanosine 3':5'-monophosphate-dependent protein kinases. Hashimoto, E., Takeda, M., Nishizuka, Y., Hamana, K., Iwai, K. J. Biol. Chem. (1976) [Pubmed]
  23. Actin filaments and microtubules play different roles during bristle elongation in Drosophila. Tilney, L.G., Connelly, P.S., Vranich, K.A., Shaw, M.K., Guild, G.M. J. Cell. Sci. (2000) [Pubmed]
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