The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Chemical Compound Review

Varikill     ethylN-[2-(4- phenoxyphenoxy)ethyl]carbamate

Synonyms: Fenasulam, Insegal, Insegar, FENOXYCARB, Pictyl, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Pictyl

  • Several compounds, structurally related to the insect growth regulator Fenoxycarb, exhibited interesting inhibition action to control proliferation of Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite responsible for Chagas' disease [1].
  • However, limited food significantly decreased the toxicity of fenoxycarb, and significantly increased the toxicity of chlorpyrifos [2].
  • In a study examining three application rates for fenoxycarb, new interpretations of population age structure in relation to sterility levels and population reductions were used to establish important concepts in the management of German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.), with juvenoids [3].
  • Female sterility was complete at 100 ppm of pyriproxyfen and fenoxycarb [4].
  • In contrast, SD50's of fenoxycarb did not differ significantly between the sexes (18.04 and 13.66 micrograms/g body weight for females and males) and were significantly lower when compared with SD50's of hydroprene [5].

High impact information on Pictyl


Biological context of Pictyl

  • A fenoxycarb concentration of 888 microg L(-1) significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited embryonic development to larval hatching and extended the embryonic developmental period from 11.9 to 12.7 days [11].
  • Starvation before fenoxycarb treatment strongly enhanced the incidence of extra molting up to 100% [12].
  • However, in such female pupae specific binding of the 50 kD protein by the photoaffinity-biotin labelled PBAN analog was induced after JH II or FX treatments thereby providing evidence that JH may up-regulate this putative receptor protein [13].
  • No clinical signs associated with exposure to fenoxycarb were observed in any animal at any time, and no exposure-related pattern of pathologic lesions or reproductive organ histology was observed [14].
  • Effects of the carbamates fenoxycarb, propamocarb and propoxur on energy supply, glucose utilization and SH-groups in neurons [15].

Anatomical context of Pictyl


Associations of Pictyl with other chemical compounds

  • Earlier work demonstrated that phenoxy-phenyl compounds such as fenoxycarb and thyroxine mimicked the effects of JH III in causing a reduction in volume of the follicle cells of Locusta migratoria [18].
  • The juvenoid fenoxycarb, a phenoxyphenyl derivative, is unrelated in structure to the juvenile hormones (which are derivatives of farnesoic acid), but it also caused a reduction in volume of the cells in vitro as measured by an increase in the optical path difference [16].
  • Sensitive developmental period of last-instar German cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattelidae) to fenoxycarb and hydroprene [19].
  • Late-instar German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.), were used to evaluate the relative effects of single treatments and combinations of three insect growth regulators (IGRs): pyriproxyfen, fenoxycarb, and diflubenzuron [4].
  • In the field, applications of house fly pupae and eye gnat, Hippelates pusio Loew, pupae dipped in acetone solutions of fenoxycarb significantly reduced population indices of the red imported fire ant, S. invicta, compared with commercial formulations of fenoxycarb (Logic) and hydramethylnon (Amdro) [20].

Gene context of Pictyl

  • The effects of the juvenile hormone analog fenoxycarb (CAS No. 72490-01-8) were investigated in artificial indoor streams [21].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Pictyl


  1. Growth inhibitory effect of juvenile hormone analogues on epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi. Rodriguez, J.B., Zhong, L., Docampo, R., Wimmer, Z., Gros, E.G. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Food concentration affects the life history response of Ceriodaphnia cf. dubia to chemicals with different mechanisms of action. Rose, R.M., Warne, M.S., Lim, R.P. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Influence of fenoxycarb on German cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae) populations in public housing. Reid, B.L., Bennett, G.W., Yonker, J.W. J. Econ. Entomol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  4. Response of late-instar Blattella germanica (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae) to dietary insect growth regulators. Ross, M.H., Cochran, D.G. J. Econ. Entomol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  5. Comparative activity of fenoxycarb and hydroprene in sterilizing the German cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). King, J.E., Bennett, G.W. J. Econ. Entomol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  6. Organization and repression by juvenile hormone of a vitellogenin gene cluster in the crustacean, Daphnia magna. Tokishita, S., Kato, Y., Kobayashi, T., Nakamura, S., Ohta, T., Yamagata, H. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Activity of juvenile hormone and juvenile hormone analogues on the growth of Trypanosoma cruzi. Stoka, A.M. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. Genetic differences in the production of male neonates in Daphnia magna exposed to juvenile hormone analogs. Oda, S., Tatarazako, N., Watanabe, H., Morita, M., Iguchi, T. Chemosphere (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Production of male neonates in Daphnia magna (Cladocera, Crustacea) exposed to juvenile hormones and their analogs. Oda, S., Tatarazako, N., Watanabe, H., Morita, M., Iguchi, T. Chemosphere (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. The effect of the juvenile hormone analog, fenoxycarb on the PBAN-receptor and pheromone production in adults of the moth Helicoverpa armigera: an "aging" hormone in adult females? Rafaeli, A., Bober, R. J. Insect Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Comparative embryonic and larval developmental responses of estuarine shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) to the juvenile hormone agonist fenoxycarb. McKenney, C.L., Cripe, G.M., Foss, S.S., Tuberty, S.R., Hoglund, M. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Applying fenoxycarb at the penultimate instar triggers an additional ecdysteroid surge and induces perfect extra larval molting in the silkworm. Kamimura, M., Kiuchi, M. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. The identification of an age- and female-specific putative PBAN membrane-receptor protein in pheromone glands of Helicoverpa armigera: possible up-regulation by Juvenile Hormone. Rafaeli, A., Zakharova, T., Lapsker, Z., Jurenka, R.A. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Reproductive effects of fenoxycarb on sheep. Barr, A.C., Abbitt, B., Fiske, R.A., Jaques, J.T., Maynard, H.R., Reagor, J.C. J. Vet. Diagn. Invest. (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. Effects of the carbamates fenoxycarb, propamocarb and propoxur on energy supply, glucose utilization and SH-groups in neurons. Schmuck, G., Mihail, F. Arch. Toxicol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Fenoxycarb and thyroid hormones have JH-like effects on the follicle cells of Locusta migratoria in vitro. Davey, K.G., Gordon, D.R. Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Ovicidal and larvicidal modes of action of fenoxycarb against the cat flea (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae). Marchiondo, A.A., Riner, J.L., Sonenshine, D.E., Rowe, K.F., Slusser, J.H. J. Med. Entomol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  18. Do thyroid hormones function in insects? Davey, K.G. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Sensitive developmental period of last-instar German cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattelidae) to fenoxycarb and hydroprene. King, J.E., Bennett, G.W. J. Med. Entomol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  20. Fly pupae as attractant carriers for toxic baits for red imported fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Williams, D.F., Lofgren, C.S., Vander Meer, R.K. J. Econ. Entomol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  21. Long-term effects of fenoxycarb on two mayfly species in artificial indoor streams. Licht, O., Jungmann, D., Ludwichowski, K.U., Nagel, R. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. Synthesis of haptens and protein conjugates for the development of immunoassays for the insect growth regulator fenoxycarb. Szurdoki, F., Székács, A., Le, H.M., Hammock, B.D. J. Agric. Food Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. Evaluation of an enzyme immunoassay for the detection of the insect growth regulator fenoxycarb in environmental and biological samples. Le, H.T., Szurdoki, F., Székács, A. Pest Manag. Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. The effects of four insect growth-regulating (IGR) insecticides on honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) colony development, queen rearing and drone sperm production. Thompson, H.M., Wilkins, S., Battersby, A.H., Waite, R.J., Wilkinson, D. Ecotoxicology (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. Absence of ovicidal effects of fenoxycarb in the tick Ixodes dammini as observed by light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. Slusser, J.H., Sonenshine, D.E. J. Med. Entomol. (1992) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities