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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Effects of the positive inotropic agents milrinone and pimobendan on the development of lethal ischemic arrhythmias in conscious dogs with recent myocardial infarction.

The effects of milrinone and pimobendan upon the initiation of programmed ventricular stimulation-induced ventricular tachycardia (VT) and the incidence of lethal ischemic ventricular arrhythmias were assessed in conscious dogs with recent anterior myocardial infarctions. Based upon the results of previous studies, the animals which were entered into this investigation were nonresponsive to baseline programmed stimulation and, therefore, considered to be at "low risk" toward the development of subsequent lethal ischemic arrhythmias. Milrinone (200 micrograms/kg/h continuous i.v. infusion) and pimobendan (300 micrograms/kg i.v.) were administered in dosing regimens shown to produce equivalent and sustained increases in left ventricular (LV) + dP/dt. At the time of repeat electrophysiologic testing, 9 of 9 pimobendan-, 9 of 10 milrinone-, and 12 of 12 concurrent vehicle-treated animals remained nonresponsive to programmed ventricular stimulation. Compared to a total control population of 39 "low risk" postinfarction dogs; however, both milrinone and pimobendan administration increased the incidence of sudden ventricular fibrillation occurring in response to the development of acute posterolateral ischemia (milrinone 4 of 10 [40%] and pimobendan 4 of 10 [40%] versus "low risk" control population 4 of 39 [10.3%]; p = 0.038). The incidence of ischemic mortality at 24 h after the development of posterolateral myocardial ischemia was increased in the milrinone-treated group (6 of 10 [60%]) compared to the "low risk" control population (6 of 39 [15.2%]; p = 0.007), whereas the incidence of 24-h ischemic mortality in the pimobendan-treated group (4 of 10 [40%]) was only of borderline statistical significance when compared to that of the "low risk" control population (p = 0.083). Milrinone, but not pimobendan, delayed the onset of acute posterolateral myocardial ischemia in the postinfarction dogs. The predominant electrophysiologic effects of both milrinone and pimobendan were decreases in ventricular refractoriness in both non-infarct (NZ) and in infarct zones (IZ), as well as reductions in electrocardiographic QTc or QT intervals. These findings suggest that with both positive inotropic agents, including milrinone which may possess protective antithrombotic action, sudden death may be increased via a reduction in ventricular refractoriness in the ischemically injured heart. The enhanced susceptibility toward the development of ischemic ventricular arrhythmias in the presence of the inotropic interventions is not predicted by programmed ventricular stimulation testing prior to the ischemic event.[1]


  1. Effects of the positive inotropic agents milrinone and pimobendan on the development of lethal ischemic arrhythmias in conscious dogs with recent myocardial infarction. Lynch, J.J., Uprichard, A.C., Frye, J.W., Driscoll, E.M., Kitzen, J.M., Lucchesi, B.R. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. (1989) [Pubmed]
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