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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Phylogenetic distribution of enamel proteins: immunohistochemical localization with monoclonal antibodies indicates the evolutionary appearance of enamelins prior to amelogenins.

The hard covering tissues, enamel or enameloid, of representative vertebrate teeth were immunohistochemically stained using specific monoclonal antibodies against bovine amelogenins and bovine enamelins in order to determine the phylogenetic distribution of enamelin and amelogenin proteins. Immunohistochemically, only enamelin proteins were present in lower vertebrate (shark, bony fish, and larval amphibian) teeth and dermal denticles. Both enamelin and amelogenin proteins were present in higher vertebrate (mammal, reptile, and adult amphibian) teeth. Large hydroxyapatite crystal size and high levels of mineralization, characteristics common to both enamel and enameloid, are probably due to the presence of the common protein enamelin. The evolution of enamel from enameloid in the tetrapods seems to have involved the development of the gene for amelogenin.[1]


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