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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Combination effects of ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, and metronidazole intravenously in volunteers.

Despite the broad antibacterial spectrum of ciprofloxacin, most anaerobic organisms are resistant to the drug, whereas several gram-positive organisms are only moderately susceptible. Thus, in some clinical situations, combined treatment with ciprofloxacin and metronidazole or clindamycin could be useful. Therefore, the pharmacokinetics and serum bactericidal activities of ciprofloxacin in combination with clindamycin or metronidazole were investigated using a randomized crossover study design in 10 healthy volunteers. Ciprofloxacin (200 mg) was administered alone and in combination with clindamycin (600 mg) or metronidazole (500 mg); all drugs were given intravenously over 30 minutes. Serum and urine concentrations of the substances were measured using standard methods (high-performance liquid chromatography or gas chromatography). Blood samples for determination of serum bactericidal activity against five different aerobic and two anaerobic bacterial species (a total of 58 strains) were obtained one hour and six hours after drug infusion. All values were statistically analyzed by use of the Student t test.[1]


  1. Combination effects of ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, and metronidazole intravenously in volunteers. Deppermann, K.M., Boeckh, M., Grineisen, S., Shokry, F., Borner, K., Koeppe, P., Krasemann, C., Wagner, J., Lode, H. Am. J. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
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