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Chemical Compound Review

MetroGel     2-(2-methyl-5-nitro-imidazol- 1-yl)ethanol

Synonyms: Metrogyl, Trivazol, Danizol, Trichazol, Trichopol, ...
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Disease relevance of MetroGel


Psychiatry related information on MetroGel


High impact information on MetroGel

  • Delivery occurred before 37 weeks of gestation in 60 women in the metronidazole group (19.0 percent) and 31 women in the placebo group (10.7 percent) (relative risk, 1.8; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.2 to 2.7; P=0.004) [11].
  • METHODS: To determine whether treating women in a general obstetrical population who have asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis (as diagnosed on the basis of vaginal Gram's staining and pH) prevents preterm delivery, we randomly assigned 1953 women who were 16 to less than 24 weeks pregnant to receive two 2-g doses of metronidazole or placebo [2].
  • Treatment did not prevent preterm deliveries that resulted from spontaneous labor (5.1 percent in the metronidazole group vs. 5.7 percent in the placebo group) or spontaneous rupture of the membranes (4.2 percent vs. 3.7 percent), nor did it prevent delivery before 32 weeks (2.3 percent vs. 2.7 percent) [2].
  • In 771 women given metronidazole for the treatment of vaginal trichomoniasis, more cancers developed than had been expected after exclusion of carcinoma of one uterine cervix (observed, 24 cases; expected on the basis of the Connecticut Tumor Registry, 21.7; expected on the basis of the Third National Cancer Survey, 18.4) [12].
  • Radiation plus metronidazole for glioblastoma [13].

Chemical compound and disease context of MetroGel


Biological context of MetroGel


Anatomical context of MetroGel

  • Two recombinant poxvirus vectors (replication-defective avipox [fowlpox; rF] and a replication-competent vaccinia [rV]) have been engineered to express a triad of costimulatory molecules (B7-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and leukocyte function-associated antigen-3; designated TRICOM) [23].
  • In addition, dendritic cells infected with TRICOM vectors were pulsed with OVA peptide and used to vaccinate mice to examine T-cell responses in vivo [23].
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms that the inflammatory infiltrate in pouchitis is acute or chronic, is characterized by neutrophils, is usually localized to pouch mucosa, and is always decreased after metronidazole therapy [24].
  • RESULTS: At 12 weeks, 21 of 28 patients (75%) in the placebo group had recurrent lesions in the neoterminal ileum as compared with 12 of 23 patients (52%) in the metronidazole group (P = 0.09) [25].
  • Bile composition was determined in fasting samples aspirated from the duodenum before metronidazole was given, at the end of 10 days on metronidazole, and a month after the drug was discontinued [26].

Associations of MetroGel with other chemical compounds


Gene context of MetroGel


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of MetroGel


  1. Reduced incidence of preterm delivery with metronidazole and erythromycin in women with bacterial vaginosis. Hauth, J.C., Goldenberg, R.L., Andrews, W.W., DuBard, M.B., Copper, R.L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. Metronidazole to prevent preterm delivery in pregnant women with asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Network of Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units. Carey, J.C., Klebanoff, M.A., Hauth, J.C., Hillier, S.L., Thom, E.A., Ernest, J.M., Heine, R.P., Nugent, R.P., Fischer, M.L., Leveno, K.J., Wapner, R., Varner, M. N. Engl. J. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Letter: Single-dose metronidazole for trichomonal vaginitis: a follow-up. Dykers, J.R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  4. Nonspecific vaginitis: role of Haemophilus vaginalis and treatment with metronidazole. Pheifer, T.A., Forsyth, P.S., Durfee, M.A., Pollock, H.M., Holmes, K.K. N. Engl. J. Med. (1978) [Pubmed]
  5. Anaerobic bacteria in nonspecific vaginitis. Spiegel, C.A., Amsel, R., Eschenbach, D., Schoenknecht, F., Holmes, K.K. N. Engl. J. Med. (1980) [Pubmed]
  6. A randomized controlled trial of an enhanced patient compliance program for Helicobacter pylori therapy. Lee, M., Kemp, J.A., Canning, A., Egan, C., Tataronis, G., Farraye, F.A. Arch. Intern. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Metronidazole-induced psychotic disorder. Schreiber, W., Spernal, J. The American journal of psychiatry. (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Metronidazole clearance: a one-sample method and influencing factors. Loft, S., Poulsen, H.E., Sonne, J., Døssing, M. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1988) [Pubmed]
  9. Diarrhoea caused by Clostridium difficile: response time for treatment with metronidazole and vancomycin. Wilcox, M.H., Howe, R. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. Spontaneous resolution of asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis in pregnancy. Sheffield, J.S., Andrews, W.W., Klebanoff, M.A., Macpherson, C., Carey, J.C., Ernest, J.M., Wapner, R.J., Trout, W., Moawad, A., Miodovnik, M., Sibai, B., Varner, M.W., Caritis, S.N., Dombrowski, M., Langer, O., O'Sullivan, M.J. Obstetrics and gynecology. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Failure of metronidazole to prevent preterm delivery among pregnant women with asymptomatic Trichomonas vaginalis infection. Klebanoff, M.A., Carey, J.C., Hauth, J.C., Hillier, S.L., Nugent, R.P., Thom, E.A., Ernest, J.M., Heine, R.P., Wapner, R.J., Trout, W., Moawad, A., Leveno, K.J., Miodovnik, M., Sibai, B.M., Van Dorsten, J.P., Dombrowski, M.P., O'Sullivan, M.J., Varner, M., Langer, O., McNellis, D., Roberts, J.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Lack of evidence for cancer due to use of metronidazole. Beard, C.M., Noller, K.L., O'Fallon, W.M., Kurland, L.T., Dockerty, M.B. N. Engl. J. Med. (1979) [Pubmed]
  13. Radiation plus metronidazole for glioblastoma. Urtasun, R.C., Band, P.R., Chapman, J.D., Feldstein, M.L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1977) [Pubmed]
  14. Cure of duodenal ulcer associated with eradication of Helicobacter pylori. Rauws, E.A., Tytgat, G.N. Lancet (1990) [Pubmed]
  15. Duodenal ulcer healing by eradication of Helicobacter pylori without anti-acid treatment: randomised controlled trial. Hosking, S.W., Ling, T.K., Chung, S.C., Yung, M.Y., Cheng, A.F., Sung, J.J., Li, A.K. Lancet (1994) [Pubmed]
  16. Antibiotic therapy attenuates colitis in interleukin 10 gene-deficient mice. Madsen, K.L., Doyle, J.S., Tavernini, M.M., Jewell, L.D., Rennie, R.P., Fedorak, R.N. Gastroenterology (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. A comparative study of metronidazole and sulfasalazine for active Crohn's disease: the cooperative Crohn's disease study in Sweden. II. Result. Ursing, B., Alm, T., Bárány, F., Bergelin, I., Ganrot-Norlin, K., Hoevels, J., Huitfeldt, B., Järnerot, G., Krause, U., Krook, A., Lindström, B., Nordle, O., Rosén, A. Gastroenterology (1982) [Pubmed]
  18. Radiation and high-dose metronidazole in supratentorial glioblastomas. Urtasun, R., Band, P., Chapman, J.D., Feldstein, M.L., Mielke, B., Fryer, C. N. Engl. J. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  19. Prophylactic peroperative intravenous metronidazole in elective colorectal surgery. Eykyn, S.J., Jackson, B.T., Lockhart-Mummery, H.E., Phillips, I. Lancet (1979) [Pubmed]
  20. Chromosome aberrations and metronidazole. Mitelman, F., Hartley-Asp, B., Ursing, B. Lancet (1976) [Pubmed]
  21. Metronidazole inhibits leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion in rat mesenteric venules. Arndt, H., Palitzsch, K.D., Grisham, M.B., Granger, D.N. Gastroenterology (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. Successful substitution of rectal metronidazole administration for intravenous use. McLean, A., Ioannides-Demos, L., Somogyi, A., Tong, N., Spicer, J. Lancet (1983) [Pubmed]
  23. Enhanced activation of T cells by dendritic cells engineered to hyperexpress a triad of costimulatory molecules. Hodge, J.W., Rad, A.N., Grosenbach, D.W., Sabzevari, H., Yafal, A.G., Gritz, L., Schlom, J. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. Evaluation of the inflammatory infiltrate in pouchitis with 111In-labeled granulocytes. Kmiot, W.A., Hesslewood, S.R., Smith, N., Thompson, H., Harding, L.K., Keighley, M.R. Gastroenterology (1993) [Pubmed]
  25. Controlled trial of metronidazole treatment for prevention of Crohn's recurrence after ileal resection. Rutgeerts, P., Hiele, M., Geboes, K., Peeters, M., Penninckx, F., Aerts, R., Kerremans, R. Gastroenterology (1995) [Pubmed]
  26. Colonic bacterial activity, biliary cholesterol saturation, and pathogenesis of gallstones. Low-Beer, T.S., Nutter, S. Lancet (1978) [Pubmed]
  27. A randomized placebo-controlled trial of Saccharomyces boulardii in combination with standard antibiotics for Clostridium difficile disease. McFarland, L.V., Surawicz, C.M., Greenberg, R.N., Fekety, R., Elmer, G.W., Moyer, K.A., Melcher, S.A., Bowen, K.E., Cox, J.L., Noorani, Z. JAMA (1994) [Pubmed]
  28. Virulence of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites. Effects of bacteria, microaerobic conditions, and metronidazole. Bracha, R., Mirelman, D. J. Exp. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  29. Favorable response to parenteral nutrition and medical therapy in Crohn's colitis. A report of 38 patients comparing severe Crohn's and ulcerative colitis. Sitzmann, J.V., Converse, R.L., Bayless, T.M. Gastroenterology (1990) [Pubmed]
  30. Influence of antibiotic treatment on breast carcinoma development in proto-neu transgenic mice. Rossini, A., Rumio, C., Sfondrini, L., Tagliabue, E., Morelli, D., Miceli, R., Mariani, L., Palazzo, M., Ménard, S., Balsari, A. Cancer Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  31. Increased cell killing by metronidazole and nitrofurazone of hypoxic compared to aerobic mammalian cells. Mohindra, J.K., Rauth, A.M. Cancer Res. (1976) [Pubmed]
  32. Induction of an antigen cascade by diversified subcutaneous/intratumoral vaccination is associated with antitumor responses. Kudo-Saito, C., Schlom, J., Hodge, J.W. Clin. Cancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  33. Vaccine therapy of established tumors in the absence of autoimmunity. Hodge, J.W., Grosenbach, D.W., Aarts, W.M., Poole, D.J., Schlom, J. Clin. Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  34. Virulence genes and neutral DNA markers of Helicobacter pylori isolates from different ethnic communities of West Bengal, India. Datta, S., Chattopadhyay, S., Balakrish Nair, G., Mukhopadhyay, A.K., Hembram, J., Berg, D.E., Rani Saha, D., Khan, A., Santra, A., Bhattacharya, S.K., Chowdhury, A. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  35. Cytochrome P450 isozymes and antiepileptic drug interactions. Levy, R.H. Epilepsia (1995) [Pubmed]
  36. Enhanced activation of rhesus T cells by vectors encoding a triad of costimulatory molecules (B7-1, ICAM-1, LFA-3). Shankar, P., Schlom, J., Hodge, J.W. Vaccine (2001) [Pubmed]
  37. Drug therapy: metronidazole. Koch-Weser, J., Goldman, P. N. Engl. J. Med. (1980) [Pubmed]
  38. Rectal administration of metronidazole. Giamarellou, H.J., Daïkos, G.K. N. Engl. J. Med. (1982) [Pubmed]
  39. Comparison of different metronidazole therapeutic regimens for bacterial vaginosis. A meta-analysis. Lugo-Miro, V.I., Green, M., Mazur, L. JAMA (1992) [Pubmed]
  40. Metronidazole: effect on radiosensitivity of tumor and normal tissues in mice. Stone, H.B., Withers, H.R. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1975) [Pubmed]
  41. Antitumor immunity after vaccination with B lymphoma cells overexpressing a triad of costimulatory molecules. Briones, J., Timmerman, J.M., Panicalli, D.L., Levy, R. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (2003) [Pubmed]
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