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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Covalent binding of 1,2-dihaloalkanes to DNA and stability of the major DNA adduct, S-[2-(N7-guanyl)ethyl]glutathione.

The major DNA adduct formed from the carcinogen ethylene dibromide (1,2-dibromoethane, EDB) is S-[2-(N7-guanyl)ethyl]glutathione, resulting from the reaction of guanyl residues with the half-mustard S-(2-bromoethyl)glutathione, which is generated by glutathione S-transferase-catalyzed conjugation of EDB with glutathione. The half-life of the alkylating species [putative S-(2-bromoethyl)glutathione or the derived episulfonium ion] was estimated to be less than 10 s. However, the stability was enough for approximately half of the alkylating metabolites to leave isolated rat hepatocytes before reacting with nucleic acids. Treatment of isolated rat hepatocytes with diethylmaleate decreased covalent binding of EDB to DNA, but treatment with 1-phenylimidazole did not, consistent with the view that conjugative metabolism is of greater importance than oxidation with regard to DNA binding. When EDB was administered to rats in vivo, only one major adduct, S-[2-(N7-guanyl)ethyl]glutathione, was formed in liver or kidney. S-[2-(N7-Guanyl)ethyl]glutathione was found in liver and kidney DNA of rats treated with 1,2-dichloroethane, but other adducts were also present. The gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase inhibitor AT-125 [L-(alpha-(5S)-alpha-amino-S-chloro-4,5-dihydro-5-isoxazoleacetic acid] did not affect the level of EDB bound to DNA by glutathione-fortified rat kidney homogenates or bound to liver or kidney DNA in vivo. The in vitro half-life of S-[2-(N7-guanyl)ethyl]glutathione in calf thymus DNA was 150 h; the half-life of the adduct in rat liver, kidney, stomach, and lung was between 70 and 100 h. Isolated S-[2-(N7-guanyl)ethyl]glutathione did not react with DNA to form new adducts. These results provide a further basis for understanding the carcinogenic action of 1,2-dihaloethanes.[1]


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