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MeSH Review

Thymus Gland

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Disease relevance of Thymus Gland


Psychiatry related information on Thymus Gland


High impact information on Thymus Gland

  • This is not due to lack of expression of myelin antigens in the thymus resulting in escape of PLP 139-151 reactive cells from central tolerance, but is due to expression of a splice variant of PLP named DM20, which lacks the residues 116-150 [8].
  • Notch receptors and their ligands are expressed in the mammalian thymus, raising the possibility that Notch could regulate T cell fate decisions [9].
  • Expression of these molecules, which serve as coreceptors by interacting specifically with either MHC class II or class I molecules, also defines discrete stages of T cell development within the thymus [10].
  • However, as the tissue distribution widens for those cells that express CD40 and gp39, we can now show that this ligand-receptor pair also plays an important role in the selection of self-reactive T cells in the thymus (central tolerance) and the regulation of tolerance in mature T cells (peripheral tolerance) [11].
  • Multiple organs of the human hematolymphoid system have been successfully engrafted into the immunodeficient C.B-17 scid scid mouse, including fetal liver, thymus, lymph node, and skin [12].

Chemical compound and disease context of Thymus Gland

  • Inbred male F344 rats treated with 20 mg methylazoxymethanol (MAM)/kg body weight showed minimal damage to DNA in bone marrow, spleen, and thymus and no suppression of the humoral immune response to human serum albumin (HSA) [13].
  • RESULTS: Intragastric and s.c. administration of probiotic and E. coli DNA ameliorated the severity of DSS-induced colitis, whereas methylated probiotic DNA, calf thymus DNA, and DNase-treated probiotics had no effect [14].
  • Inactivation of Rho function in the thymus was achieved by thymic targeting of a transgene encoding C3 transferase from Clostridium botulinum which selectively ADP-ribosylates Rho within its effector domain and thereby abolishes its biological function [15].
  • This report describes a congenital myopathy and major loss of thymic lymphocytes in ankyrin-B (-/-) mice as well as dramatic alterations in intracellular localization of key components of the Ca(2+) homeostasis machinery in ankyrin-B (-/-) striated muscle and thymus [16].
  • Here we report that apoptosis could be induced in TGase2-/- mice; however, the clearance of apoptotic cells was defective during the involution of thymus elicited by dexamethasone, anti-CD3 antibody, or gamma-irradiation, and in the liver after induced hyperplasia [17].

Biological context of Thymus Gland


Anatomical context of Thymus Gland

  • Poly(A)+ protamine mRNA was isolated from trout testis cells in a very pure form, and artificial poly(A)- protamine mRNA molecules were derived from it by enzymatic deadenylation with RNAase H from calf thymus after hybridization with oligo(dT) [22].
  • The frequency of normal murine B lymphocytes initiating growth in diluted suspension cultures in the presence of a B cell mitogen, such as lipopolysaccharide, can be increased approximately 10(4) fold by the addition of 2 X 10(6) normal thymus cells per ml [23].
  • The thymus glands of all patients with CID and ADA deficiency who could be examined have evidence of thymic involution manifested by presence of Hassall's corpuscles and differentiated germinal epithelium; this is in contrast to "classic" thymus findings in CID with normal ADA [24].
  • Lymphocyte differentiation and major histocompatibility complex antigen expression in the embryonic thymus [25].
  • We report here a virtual absence of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-positive (TdT+) cells in the bone marrow, thymus and spleen of motheaten mice [26].

Associations of Thymus Gland with chemical compounds

  • A new procedure is described which allows selective reversal of formaldehyde cross-linking in both histone-histone and histone-DNA of nuclei isolated from calf thymus [27].
  • The gene underlying Netherton disease (SPINK5) encodes a 15-domain serine proteinase inhibitor (LEKTI) which is expressed in epithelial and mucosal surfaces and in the thymus [28].
  • In particular, it has been found that the tolerance to graft-type H-2 determinants which normally ensues when T cells differentiate in an H-2-different thymus fails to occur when the thymus is pretreated with deoxyguanosine (dGuo), a procedure that selectively destroys Mphi/DC but spares epithelial cells [29].
  • Recent studies suggest that this inhibitory phosphorylation may be caused by p50csk (for C-terminal Src kinase), a tyrosine protein kinase which accumulates most abundantly in thymus and spleen [30].
  • The dimeric cell-surface glycoprotein CD8 is crucial to the positive selection of cytotoxic T cells in the thymus [31].

Gene context of Thymus Gland

  • As expected, p53 protein levels were not induced by IR in thymus of Atm-deficient mice [32].
  • Transgenic complementation with wild-type Nik restored the normal structures of LN, PP, spleen and thymus, and the normal immune response in aly/aly mice [33].
  • Here we show that cloned Pax5-deficient pro-B cells transferred into RAG2-deficient mice provide long-term reconstitution of the thymus and give rise to mature T cells expressing alpha/beta-T-cell receptors [34].
  • Expression and ablation studies identified the thymus, where Gcm1, another Gcm homologue, is expressed, as the additional, downregulatable source of PTH [35].
  • While evaluating the abnormalities in alphaGC-induced immune responses, we observed that Sh2d1a-/- animals lacked NKT cells in the thymus and peripheral organs [36].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Thymus Gland


  1. Detection of anti-acetylcholine receptor factors in serum and thymus from patients with myasthenia gravis. Mittag, T., Kornfeld, P., Tormay, A., Woo, C. N. Engl. J. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  2. Virus- and cell-encoded tyrosine protein kinases inactivate DNA topoisomerases in vitro. Tse-Dinh, Y.C., Wong, T.W., Goldberg, A.R. Nature (1984) [Pubmed]
  3. Changes in thymic function with age and during the treatment of HIV infection. Douek, D.C., McFarland, R.D., Keiser, P.H., Gage, E.A., Massey, J.M., Haynes, B.F., Polis, M.A., Haase, A.T., Feinberg, M.B., Sullivan, J.L., Jamieson, B.D., Zack, J.A., Picker, L.J., Koup, R.A. Nature (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Disruption of positive selection of thymocytes causes autoimmunity. Kretz-Rommel, A., Rubin, R.L. Nat. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. The prevention of thymic lymphomas in transgenic mice by human O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase. Dumenco, L.L., Allay, E., Norton, K., Gerson, S.L. Science (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. Influence of steroidal and nonsteroidal sex hormones on host resistance in mice: increased susceptibility to Listeria monocytogenes after exposure to estrogenic hormones. Pung, O.J., Luster, M.I., Hayes, H.T., Rader, J. Infect. Immun. (1984) [Pubmed]
  7. Pituitary-adrenal function and hypothalamic beta-endorphin release in vitro following food deprivation. Mitev, Y., Almeida, O.F., Patchev, V. Brain Res. Bull. (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. T cell response in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE): role of self and cross-reactive antigens in shaping, tuning, and regulating the autopathogenic T cell repertoire. Kuchroo, V.K., Anderson, A.C., Waldner, H., Munder, M., Bettelli, E., Nicholson, L.B. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Regulation of T cell fate by Notch. Robey, E. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. The regulation of CD4 and CD8 coreceptor gene expression during T cell development. Ellmeier, W., Sawada, S., Littman, D.R. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Immune regulation by CD40 and its ligand GP39. Foy, T.M., Aruffo, A., Bajorath, J., Buhlmann, J.E., Noelle, R.J. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. The SCID-hu mouse: a small animal model for HIV infection and pathogenesis. McCune, J., Kaneshima, H., Krowka, J., Namikawa, R., Outzen, H., Peault, B., Rabin, L., Shih, C.C., Yee, E., Lieberman, M. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  13. Methylazoxymethanol: effect on the immune response of rats to human serum albumin. Habeeb, A.F., Preston, A.M., Sanabria, P., Escobales, N. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1982) [Pubmed]
  14. Toll-like receptor 9 signaling mediates the anti-inflammatory effects of probiotics in murine experimental colitis. Rachmilewitz, D., Katakura, K., Karmeli, F., Hayashi, T., Reinus, C., Rudensky, B., Akira, S., Takeda, K., Lee, J., Takabayashi, K., Raz, E. Gastroenterology (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. The GTPase Rho has a critical regulatory role in thymus development. Henning, S.W., Galandrini, R., Hall, A., Cantrell, D.A. EMBO J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. Ankyrin-B is required for intracellular sorting of structurally diverse Ca2+ homeostasis proteins. Tuvia, S., Buhusi, M., Davis, L., Reedy, M., Bennett, V. J. Cell Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Transglutaminase 2-/- mice reveal a phagocytosis-associated crosstalk between macrophages and apoptotic cells. Szondy, Z., Sarang, Z., Molnar, P., Nemeth, T., Piacentini, M., Mastroberardino, P.G., Falasca, L., Aeschlimann, D., Kovacs, J., Kiss, I., Szegezdi, E., Lakos, G., Rajnavolgyi, E., Birckbichler, P.J., Melino, G., Fesus, L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Down-regulation of T cell receptors on self-reactive T cells as a novel mechanism for extrathymic tolerance induction. Schönrich, G., Kalinke, U., Momburg, F., Malissen, M., Schmitt-Verhulst, A.M., Malissen, B., Hämmerling, G.J., Arnold, B. Cell (1991) [Pubmed]
  19. The insulin gene is transcribed in the human thymus and transcription levels correlated with allelic variation at the INS VNTR-IDDM2 susceptibility locus for type 1 diabetes. Pugliese, A., Zeller, M., Fernandez, A., Zalcberg, L.J., Bartlett, R.J., Ricordi, C., Pietropaolo, M., Eisenbarth, G.S., Bennett, S.T., Patel, D.D. Nat. Genet. (1997) [Pubmed]
  20. Chicken oviduct progesterone receptor: location of specific regions of high-affinity binding in cloned DNA fragments of hormone-responsive genes. Mulvihill, E.R., LePennec, J.P., Chambon, P. Cell (1982) [Pubmed]
  21. p53 is required for radiation-induced apoptosis in mouse thymocytes. Lowe, S.W., Schmitt, E.M., Smith, S.W., Osborne, B.A., Jacks, T. Nature (1993) [Pubmed]
  22. Isolation and characterization of trout testis protamine mRNAs lacking poly (A). Gedamu, L., Iatrou, K., Dixon, G.H. Cell (1977) [Pubmed]
  23. Clonal growth and maturation to immunoglobulin secretion in vitro of every growth-inducible B lymphocyte. Andersson, J., Coutinho, A., Lernhardt, W., Melchers, F. Cell (1977) [Pubmed]
  24. Abnormal spontaneous rosette formation and rosette inhibition in lung carcinoma. Gross, R.L., Latty, A., Williams, E.A., Newberne, P.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1975) [Pubmed]
  25. Lymphocyte differentiation and major histocompatibility complex antigen expression in the embryonic thymus. Jenkinson, E.J., Owen, J.J., Aspinall, R. Nature (1980) [Pubmed]
  26. Deficiency in cells expressing terminal transferase in autoimmune (motheaten) mice. Landreth, K.S., McCoy, K., Clagett, J., Bollum, F.J., Rosse, C. Nature (1981) [Pubmed]
  27. Studies on histone organization in the nucleosome using formaldehyde as a reversible cross-linking agent. Jackson, V. Cell (1978) [Pubmed]
  28. Gene polymorphism in Netherton and common atopic disease. Walley, A.J., Chavanas, S., Moffatt, M.F., Esnouf, R.M., Ubhi, B., Lawrence, R., Wong, K., Abecasis, G.R., Jones, E.Y., Harper, J.I., Hovnanian, A., Cookson, W.O. Nat. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  29. Identity of cells that imprint H-2-restricted T-cell specificity in the thymus. Lo, D., Sprent, J. Nature (1986) [Pubmed]
  30. Negative regulation of T-cell receptor signalling by tyrosine protein kinase p50csk. Chow, L.M., Fournel, M., Davidson, D., Veillette, A. Nature (1993) [Pubmed]
  31. Crystal structure of the complex between human CD8alpha(alpha) and HLA-A2. Gao, G.F., Tormo, J., Gerth, U.C., Wyer, J.R., McMichael, A.J., Stuart, D.I., Bell, J.I., Jones, E.Y., Jakobsen, B.K. Nature (1997) [Pubmed]
  32. Atm selectively regulates distinct p53-dependent cell-cycle checkpoint and apoptotic pathways. Barlow, C., Brown, K.D., Deng, C.X., Tagle, D.A., Wynshaw-Boris, A. Nat. Genet. (1997) [Pubmed]
  33. Alymphoplasia is caused by a point mutation in the mouse gene encoding Nf-kappa b-inducing kinase. Shinkura, R., Kitada, K., Matsuda, F., Tashiro, K., Ikuta, K., Suzuki, M., Kogishi, K., Serikawa, T., Honjo, T. Nat. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  34. Long-term in vivo reconstitution of T-cell development by Pax5-deficient B-cell progenitors. Rolink, A.G., Nutt, S.L., Melchers, F., Busslinger, M. Nature (1999) [Pubmed]
  35. Genetic ablation of parathyroid glands reveals another source of parathyroid hormone. Günther, T., Chen, Z.F., Kim, J., Priemel, M., Rueger, J.M., Amling, M., Moseley, J.M., Martin, T.J., Anderson, D.J., Karsenty, G. Nature (2000) [Pubmed]
  36. Regulation of NKT cell development by SAP, the protein defective in XLP. Nichols, K.E., Hom, J., Gong, S.Y., Ganguly, A., Ma, C.S., Cannons, J.L., Tangye, S.G., Schwartzberg, P.L., Koretzky, G.A., Stein, P.L. Nat. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  37. A retroviral oncogene, akt, encoding a serine-threonine kinase containing an SH2-like region. Bellacosa, A., Testa, J.R., Staal, S.P., Tsichlis, P.N. Science (1991) [Pubmed]
  38. Role for CCR7 ligands in the emigration of newly generated T lymphocytes from the neonatal thymus. Ueno, T., Hara, K., Willis, M.S., Malin, M.A., Höpken, U.E., Gray, D.H., Matsushima, K., Lipp, M., Springer, T.A., Boyd, R.L., Yoshie, O., Takahama, Y. Immunity (2002) [Pubmed]
  39. Recruitment of adult thymic progenitors is regulated by P-selectin and its ligand PSGL-1. Rossi, F.M., Corbel, S.Y., Merzaban, J.S., Carlow, D.A., Gossens, K., Duenas, J., So, L., Yi, L., Ziltener, H.J. Nat. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  40. Depletion of CD8+ cells in human thymic medulla results in selective immune deficiency. Roifman, C.M., Hummel, D., Martinez-Valdez, H., Thorner, P., Doherty, P.J., Pan, S., Cohen, F., Cohen, A. J. Exp. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  41. Serologic cross-reactivity between Class I MHC molecules and an H-2-linked differentiation antigen as detected by monoclonal antibodies. Sharrow, S.O., Flaherty, L., Sachs, D.H. J. Exp. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
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