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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Resonance Raman studies on the blue-green-colored bovine adrenal tyrosine 3-monooxygenase (tyrosine hydroxylase). Evidence that the feedback inhibitors adrenaline and noradrenaline are coordinated to iron.

Tyrosine 3-monooxygenase (tyrosine hydroxylase) is a non-heme iron, tetrahydropterin-dependent enzyme which catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of catecholamines. The highly purified bovine adrenal enzyme contains an unusual blue-green chromophore with lambda max at around 700 nm (epsilon = 1.3 (mM subunit enzyme)-1 cm-1). On excitation at 605.2 nm, resonance-enhanced Raman vibrations are observed at 454, 494, 527, 604, 635, 835, 1130, 1271, 1320, 1426, and 1476 cm-1. The excitation profiles of the modes of 1276 and 1476 cm-1 (from 488 to 620 nm) follow the contour of the 700 nm absorption band. The vibrations observed strongly indicate the presence of a bidentate catecholamine-Fe(III) complex in the enzyme as isolated which gives rise to the characteristic charge-transfer transitions. This is further supported by the release of 0.11 +/- 0.04 mol of noradrenaline and 0.25 +/- 0.06 mol of adrenaline per mol of enzyme subunit on denaturation of the enzyme. The energies of the catecholate to Fe(III) charge-transfer transitions indicate a mixture of histidines and carboxylate(s) coordinated to the iron center in tyrosine hydroxylase. At neutral pH, the enzymatic activity was inhibited more than 50% by 10 microM dopamine, noradrenaline, and adrenaline. The high affinity of the catecholamines to the nonphosphorylated form of tyrosine hydroxylase may have significance in vivo since catecholamines are potent feedback inhibitors of the enzyme.[1]


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