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Chemical Compound Review

dopamine     4-(2-aminoethyl)benzene-1,2- diol

Synonyms: Dopamina, Dopastat, Revimine, intropin, Dopamin, ...
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Disease relevance of deoxyepinephrine

  • Uneven pattern of dopamine loss in the striatum of patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Pathophysiologic and clinical implications [1].
  • Bilateral implantation of fetal mesencephalic tissue can induce substantial long-term functional improvement in patients with parkinsonism and severe dopamine depletion and is accompanied by increased uptake of fluorodopa by the striatum [2].
  • We conclude that dopamine agonists are usually effective treatments for macroprolactinoma and that after a response has been obtained, it can be maintained in many patients with a greatly reduced dose [3].
  • The selective destruction by MPTP of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons that is responsible for the movement disorder also appears to result in an increase in central noradrenergic activity, which is not possible in Parkinson's disease [4].
  • Although bromocriptine, a dopamine receptor agonist, is now widely used in the treatment of acromegaly, there have been no controlled trials of its biochemical or clinical effects on this disorder [5].
  • This suggests that dopamine dysfunction is involved with symptoms of inattention but may also contribute to substance abuse comorbidity in ADHD [6].
  • Endothelial and ovarian cancer cells expressed all dopamine receptors except for the lack of DR3 expression in ovarian cancer cells [7].

Psychiatry related information on deoxyepinephrine


High impact information on deoxyepinephrine

  • Drug therapy may play an increasing role, especially dopamine agonists, which control either hGH or prolactin secretion and can cause shrinkage of tumor tissue [15].
  • Dopamine beta-hydroxylase of adrenal chromaffin granules: structure and function [16].
  • In the central nervous system, dopamine receptors are widely expressed because they are involved in the control of locomotion, cognition, emotion, and affect as well as neuroendocrine secretion [17].
  • In the periphery, dopamine receptors are present more prominently in kidney, vasculature, and pituitary, where they affect mainly sodium homeostasis, vascular tone, and hormone secretion [17].
  • The diverse physiological actions of dopamine are mediated by at least five distinct G protein-coupled receptor subtypes [17].

Chemical compound and disease context of deoxyepinephrine


Biological context of deoxyepinephrine


Anatomical context of deoxyepinephrine


Associations of deoxyepinephrine with other chemical compounds

  • While reclining, dysautonomic patients had normal norepinephrine concentrations and blood pressure, but after standing they did not have a normal increase in their levels of norepinephrine (P less than 0.005), dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (P less than 0.05) or plasma protein concentration (P less than 0.01); they became hypotensive [30].
  • Here we show that targetted inactivation of MAOB in mice increases levels of PEA but not those of 5-HT, NE and DA, demonstrating a primary role for MAOB in the metabolism of PEA [31].
  • In contrast, there is no pronounced loss of serotonin in the neostriatum or of dopamine and its metabolites in other brain areas in MPTP-treated animals [32].
  • Midbrain dopamine neurons normally help to shape behaviour by reinforcing biologically rewarding events, but addictive drugs such as cocaine can inappropriately exert a reinforcing influence by acting upon the mesolimbic dopamine system [33].
  • In vivo electrochemical detection of catechols in the neostriatum of anaesthetized rats: dopamine or DOPAC [34]?
  • We then examined rats in which the PFC dopamine innervation was lesioned and 3 weeks later were started on chronic treatment with an atypical (olanzapine) or typical (haloperidol) antipsychotic drug [35].
  • Our results are indicative of competition between the DAT ligand (123)I-FP-CIT and synaptic dopamine elevated by haloperidol, suggesting that the assessment of (123)I-FP-CIT binding may be suitable to study variations in synaptic dopamine in vivo [36].
  • The fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between CdSe-ZnS QDs and fluorophore-labeled galactose or fluorophore-labeled dopamine linked to phenyl boronic acid-functionalized QDs is used to develop competitive assays for the optical detection of galactose, glucose, or dopamine [37].

Gene context of deoxyepinephrine


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of deoxyepinephrine


  1. Uneven pattern of dopamine loss in the striatum of patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Pathophysiologic and clinical implications. Kish, S.J., Shannak, K., Hornykiewicz, O. N. Engl. J. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  2. Bilateral fetal mesencephalic grafting in two patients with parkinsonism induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Widner, H., Tetrud, J., Rehncrona, S., Snow, B., Brundin, P., Gustavii, B., Björklund, A., Lindvall, O., Langston, J.W. N. Engl. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Low doses of dopamine agonists in the long-term treatment of macroprolactinomas. Liuzzi, A., Dallabonzana, D., Oppizzi, G., Verde, G.G., Cozzi, R., Chiodini, P., Luccarelli, G. N. Engl. J. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  4. The clinical syndrome of striatal dopamine deficiency. Parkinsonism induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Burns, R.S., LeWitt, P.A., Ebert, M.H., Pakkenberg, H., Kopin, I.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  5. No effect of bromocriptine in acromegaly: a controlled trial. Lindholm, J., Riishede, J., Vestergaard, S., Hummer, L., Faber, O., Hagen, C. N. Engl. J. Med. (1981) [Pubmed]
  6. Depressed dopamine activity in caudate and preliminary evidence of limbic involvement in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Volkow, N.D., Wang, G.J., Newcorn, J., Telang, F., Solanto, M.V., Fowler, J.S., Logan, J., Ma, Y., Schulz, K., Pradhan, K., Wong, C., Swanson, J.M. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (2007) [Pubmed]
  7. Dopamine blocks stress-mediated ovarian carcinoma growth. Moreno-Smith, M., Lu, C., Shahzad, M.M., Pena, G.N., Allen, J.K., Stone, R.L., Mangala, L.S., Han, H.D., Kim, H.S., Farley, D., Berestein, G.L., Cole, S.W., Lutgendorf, S.K., Sood, A.K. Clin. Cancer Res. (2011) [Pubmed]
  8. Dissociation of dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens from intracranial self-stimulation. Garris, P.A., Kilpatrick, M., Bunin, M.A., Michael, D., Walker, Q.D., Wightman, R.M. Nature (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Selective inhibition of cocaine-seeking behaviour by a partial dopamine D3 receptor agonist. Pilla, M., Perachon, S., Sautel, F., Garrido, F., Mann, A., Wermuth, C.G., Schwartz, J.C., Everitt, B.J., Sokoloff, P. Nature (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Brain noradrenaline depletion prevents ECS-induced enhancement of serotonin- and dopamine-mediated behaviour. Green, A.R., Deakin, J.F. Nature (1980) [Pubmed]
  11. Cloning of the gene for a human dopamine D4 receptor with high affinity for the antipsychotic clozapine. Van Tol, H.H., Bunzow, J.R., Guan, H.C., Sunahara, R.K., Seeman, P., Niznik, H.B., Civelli, O. Nature (1991) [Pubmed]
  12. Receptors for dopamine and somatostatin: formation of hetero-oligomers with enhanced functional activity. Rocheville, M., Lange, D.C., Kumar, U., Patel, S.C., Patel, R.C., Patel, Y.C. Science (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Is dopamine a physiologically relevant mediator of feeding behavior? Palmiter, R.D. Trends Neurosci. (2007) [Pubmed]
  14. Dopamine transporter cell surface localization facilitated by a direct interaction with the dopamine D2 receptor. Lee, F.J., Pei, L., Moszczynska, A., Vukusic, B., Fletcher, P.J., Liu, F. EMBO J. (2007) [Pubmed]
  15. Pituitary tumors: diagnosis and therapy. Cook, D.M. CA: a cancer journal for clinicians. (1983) [Pubmed]
  16. Dopamine beta-hydroxylase of adrenal chromaffin granules: structure and function. Stewart, L.C., Klinman, J.P. Annu. Rev. Biochem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  17. Dopamine receptors: from structure to function. Missale, C., Nash, S.R., Robinson, S.W., Jaber, M., Caron, M.G. Physiol. Rev. (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. A five-year study of the incidence of dyskinesia in patients with early Parkinson's disease who were treated with ropinirole or levodopa. 056 Study Group. Rascol, O., Brooks, D.J., Korczyn, A.D., De Deyn, P.P., Clarke, C.E., Lang, A.E. N. Engl. J. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. The clinical syndrome of striatal dopamine deficiency: parkinsonism induced by MPTP. Eldridge, R., Rocca, W.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  20. Haloperidol-induced catalepsy is mediated by postsynaptic dopamine receptors. Sanberg, P.R. Nature (1980) [Pubmed]
  21. A single GTP-binding protein regulates K+-channels coupled with dopamine, histamine and acetylcholine receptors. Sasaki, K., Sato, M. Nature (1987) [Pubmed]
  22. Cocaine receptors on dopamine transporters are related to self-administration of cocaine. Ritz, M.C., Lamb, R.J., Goldberg, S.R., Kuhar, M.J. Science (1987) [Pubmed]
  23. Psychotherapeutic control of hypertension. Stone, R.A., DeLeo, J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  24. Letter: Effects of dopamine on heart rate. Kuehnle, J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1975) [Pubmed]
  25. Activation of NMDA receptors induces dephosphorylation of DARPP-32 in rat striatal slices. Halpain, S., Girault, J.A., Greengard, P. Nature (1990) [Pubmed]
  26. Dopamine-like renal and mesenteric vasodilation caused by apomorphine 6-propylnorapomorphine and 2-amino-6, 7-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene. Crumly, H.J., Pinder, R.M., Hinshaw, W.B., Goldberg, L.I. Nature (1976) [Pubmed]
  27. Mosaicism for a specific somatic mitochondrial DNA mutation in adult human brain. Soong, N.W., Hinton, D.R., Cortopassi, G., Arnheim, N. Nat. Genet. (1992) [Pubmed]
  28. Unilateral transplantation of human fetal mesencephalic tissue into the caudate nucleus of patients with Parkinson's disease. Spencer, D.D., Robbins, R.J., Naftolin, F., Marek, K.L., Vollmer, T., Leranth, C., Roth, R.H., Price, L.H., Gjedde, A., Bunney, B.S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  29. Survival of implanted fetal dopamine cells and neurologic improvement 12 to 46 months after transplantation for Parkinson's disease. Freed, C.R., Breeze, R.E., Rosenberg, N.L., Schneck, S.A., Kriek, E., Qi, J.X., Lone, T., Zhang, Y.B., Snyder, J.A., Wells, T.H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  30. Deficient sympathetic nervous response in familial dysautonomia. Ziegler, M.G., Lake, C.R., Kopin, I.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  31. Increased stress response and beta-phenylethylamine in MAOB-deficient mice. Grimsby, J., Toth, M., Chen, K., Kumazawa, T., Klaidman, L., Adams, J.D., Karoum, F., Gal, J., Shih, J.C. Nat. Genet. (1997) [Pubmed]
  32. Protection against the dopaminergic neurotoxicity of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridine by monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Heikkila, R.E., Manzino, L., Cabbat, F.S., Duvoisin, R.C. Nature (1984) [Pubmed]
  33. Nicotine activates and desensitizes midbrain dopamine neurons. Pidoplichko, V.I., DeBiasi, M., Williams, J.T., Dani, J.A. Nature (1997) [Pubmed]
  34. In vivo electrochemical detection of catechols in the neostriatum of anaesthetized rats: dopamine or DOPAC? Gonon, F., Buda, M., Cespuglio, R., Jouvet, M., Pujol, J.F. Nature (1980) [Pubmed]
  35. Dopamine depletion of the prefrontal cortex induces dendritic spine loss: reversal by atypical antipsychotic drug treatment. Wang, H.D., Deutch, A.Y. Neuropsychopharmacology (2008) [Pubmed]
  36. Pretreatment with haloperidol reduces (123)I-FP-CIT binding to the dopamine transporter in the rat striatum: an in vivo imaging study with a dedicated small-animal SPECT camera. Nikolaus, S., Antke, C., Kley, K., Beu, M., Wirrwar, A., Müller, H.W. J. Nucl. Med. (2009) [Pubmed]
  37. Competitive analysis of saccharides or dopamine by boronic acid-functionalized CdSe-ZnS quantum dots. Freeman, R., Bahshi, L., Finder, T., Gill, R., Willner, I. Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (2009) [Pubmed]
  38. A second independent pathway for development of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons requires Lmx1b. Smidt, M.P., Asbreuk, C.H., Cox, J.J., Chen, H., Johnson, R.L., Burbach, J.P. Nat. Neurosci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  39. Direct effects of catecholamines, thyrotropin-releasing hormone, and somatostatin on growth hormone and prolactin secretion from adenomatous and nonadenomatous human pituitary cells in culture. Ishibashi, M., Yamaji, T. J. Clin. Invest. (1984) [Pubmed]
  40. Transgenic expression of the endothelin-B receptor prevents congenital intestinal aganglionosis in a rat model of Hirschsprung disease. Gariepy, C.E., Williams, S.C., Richardson, J.A., Hammer, R.E., Yanagisawa, M. J. Clin. Invest. (1998) [Pubmed]
  41. Parkin blushed by PINK1. Tan, J.M., Dawson, T.M. Neuron (2006) [Pubmed]
  42. Role of organic cation transporters in dopamine uptake across olfactory and nasal respiratory tissues. Chemuturi, N.V., Donovan, M.D. Mol. Pharm. (2007) [Pubmed]
  43. Consequences of variations in genes that affect dopamine in prefrontal cortex. Diamond, A. Cereb. Cortex (2007) [Pubmed]
  44. Dopamine D1 receptor-induced signaling through TrkB receptors in striatal neurons. Iwakura, Y., Nawa, H., Sora, I., Chao, M.V. J. Biol. Chem. (2008) [Pubmed]
  45. Neonatal lesions of the medial temporal lobe disrupt prefrontal cortical regulation of striatal dopamine. Saunders, R.C., Kolachana, B.S., Bachevalier, J., Weinberger, D.R. Nature (1998) [Pubmed]
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