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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Projection geometry and stress-reduction techniques in craniofacial surgery.

Since 1981, we have been able to modify the mathematical patterns of projection geometry to reshape the skull in craniofacial surgery. Unlike burring, morcellization, rotation, and plate switching, this technique actually changes the shape of individual sections of the skull by changing their radius of curvature. The technique is an adaptation of the principles used by engineers to build complex structures such as ships' hulls, airfoils, and domes. The result is a rigid form of the desired shape that becomes permanent with healing. This has several advantages: 1. An increase in the level of safety of craniofacial procedures for remodeling the skull. This is so because there is no need to dissect normal areas as in the standard plate-switching techniques. 2. Decreased operating room time. 3. An increased range of surgical manipulations. No longer is the surgeon limited to the shape of the material present. 4. Relief of edge pressure on the frontal lobes during scalp closure. 5. Creation of a solid bony form over which the pericranial scalp flap can be draped to form new layers of bone.[1]


  1. Projection geometry and stress-reduction techniques in craniofacial surgery. Hendel, P.M., Nadell, J.M. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. (1989) [Pubmed]
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