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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Cotransformation of Aspergillus nidulans: a tool for replacing fungal genes.

When a non-selected DNA sequence was added during the transformation of amdS320 deletion strains of Aspergillus nidulans with a vector containing the wild-type amdS gene the AmdS+ transformants were cotransformed at a high frequency. Cotransformation of an amdS320, trpC801 double mutant strain showed that both the molar ratio of the two vectors and the concentration of the cotransforming vector affected the cotransformation frequency. The maximum frequency obtained was defined by the gene chosen as selection marker for transformation. Cotransformation was used to induce a gene replacement in A. nidulans. An amdS320 strain was transformed to AmdS+ and cotransformed with a DNA fragment containing a fusion between a non-functional A. nidulans trpC gene and the Escherichia coli lacZ gene. Ten AmdS+, LacZ+ transformants with a Trp- mutant phenotype were selected. All of these strains could be transformed with a functional copy of the A. nidulans trpC gene, but only two strains yielded TrpC+ transformants which, with a low frequency, had a LacZ- phenotype. These latter transformants had also lost the AmdS+ phenotype. Southern blotting analysis of DNA from these transformants confirmed the inactivation of the wild-type trpC gene, but revealed that amdS vector sequences were also involved in the gene replacement events.[1]


  1. Cotransformation of Aspergillus nidulans: a tool for replacing fungal genes. Wernars, K., Goosen, T., Wennekes, B.M., Swart, K., van den Hondel, C.A., van den Broek, H.W. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1987) [Pubmed]
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