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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Resonance Raman spectroscopy of pyridoxal Schiff bases.

Resonance Raman (RR) spectra are reported for amino acid and amine adducts of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate ( PLP) and 5'-deoxypyridoxal (5'-dPL) in aqueous solution. For the valine adducts, a detailed study has been carried out on solutions at pH and pD 5, 9, and 13, values at which the pyridine and imine protons are successively ionized, and on the adducts formed from 15N-valine, alpha-deuterovaline, and N-methyl-PLP. Good quality spectra were obtained, despite the strong fluorescence of pyridoxal Schiff bases, by adding KI as a quencher, and by exciting the molecules on the blue side of their absorption bands: 406.7 nm (cw Kr+ laser) for the pH 5 and 9 species (lambda max = 409 and 414 nm), and 354.7 nm (pulsed YAG laser, third harmonic) for the pH 13 species (lambda max = 360 nm). A prominent band at 1646 cm-1 is assigned to the imine C=N stretch via its 13 cm-1 15N shift. A 12 cm-1 down-shift of the band in D2O confirms that the Schiff base linkage is protonated at pH 9. Deprotonation at pH 13 shifts VC = N from 1646 to 1629 cm-1, values typical of conjugated Schiff bases. The strongest band in the spectrum, at 1338 cm-1, shifts to 1347 cm-1 upon pyridine protonation at pH 5, and is assigned to a ring mode with a large component of phenolate C-O stretch. A shoulder on its low-frequency side is assigned to the C4-C4' stretch. Large enhancements of these modes can be understood qualitatively in terms of the dominant resonance structures contributing to the ground and resonant excited states. A number of weaker bands are observed, and assigned to pyridine ring modes. These modes gain significantly in intensity, while the exocyclic modes diminish, when the spectra are excited at 266 nm (YAG laser, fourth harmonic) in resonance with ring-localized electronic transitions.[1]


  1. Resonance Raman spectroscopy of pyridoxal Schiff bases. Benecky, M.J., Copeland, R.A., Hays, T.R., Lobenstine, E.W., Rava, R.P., Pascal, R.A., Spiro, T.G. J. Biol. Chem. (1985) [Pubmed]
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