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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Cyclic deposition of calcium salts during growth of cholesterol gallstones.

Some cholesterol gallstones contain darkly pigmented centers or peripheral concentric pigmented bands. We examined the cross-sectional surface of three cholesterol gallstones which contained both central and peripheral pigmented areas with electron-probe microanalysis (EPM) and energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis (EDXA) to determine the elemental composition of the pigmented regions. Linear EPM across the cross-sectional surface of the stones demonstrated that most of the pigmented regions of all three stones had high Ca and P signals; the non-pigmented intervening areas had markedly lower or no detectable Ca and P signals. In two of the three stones, high O signals coincided with the high Ca and P signals suggesting that both calcium bilirubinate and calcium phosphate were present in these pigmented areas. EDXA of the central and peripheral pigmented areas of each stone confirmed the presence of a high Ca signal. Our results demonstrate that in some cholesterol gallstones there is cyclic deposition of calcium bilirubinate and other calcium salts.[1]


  1. Cyclic deposition of calcium salts during growth of cholesterol gallstones. Malet, P.F., Weston, N.E., Trotman, B.W., Soloway, R.D. Scanning electron microscopy. (1985) [Pubmed]
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