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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Gallstones


High impact information on Gallstones

  • The effect of ursodiol on the efficacy and safety of extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy of gallstones. The Dornier National Biliary Lithotripsy Study [6].
  • We conclude that the dissolution of gallstones by MTBE delivered through a percutaneous transhepatic catheter is a useful alternative to surgery in selected patients with symptomatic cholesterol stones [7].
  • Effects of ursodeoxycholic acid and aspirin on the formation of lithogenic bile and gallstones during loss of weight [8].
  • At entry, at four weeks of treatment, and at three weeks after the completion of treatment, the subjects underwent ultrasonography to detect gallstones and duodenal drainage of bile to detect cholesterol crystals and to determine the bile saturation index and glycoprotein concentration [8].
  • To determine whether highly saturated bile is a congenital or acquired characteristic of Pima Indians and to elucidate the basis of the rapid postpubertal increase in gallstones in Pimas, we studied the bile of 66 Pimas nine to 21 years of age [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Gallstones


Biological context of Gallstones


Anatomical context of Gallstones


Gene context of Gallstones

  • Our findings may offer a new approach to treat gallstones by inhibiting hepatic ER activity with a liver-specific, ERalpha-selective antagonist [24].
  • The patients with gallstones also had significantly increased cytosolic total and free cholesterol levels (P < 0.001), which correlated strongly with increased cytosolic levels of SCP2/nsLTP (r = 0.80, P < 0.001 and r = 0.81, P < 0.001, respectively) [25].
  • Biliary concentrations of CEA cross-reacting proteins were determined in patients with and without gallstones [26].
  • Our results suggest that overexpression of SCP2 contributes to biliary cholesterol hypersecretion and the pathogenesis of gallstones in genetically susceptible mice [27].
  • Lith6: a new QTL for cholesterol gallstones from an intercross of CAST/Ei and DBA/2J inbred mouse strains [28].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Gallstones


  1. Cholesterol crystals and the formation of cholesterol gallstones. Sedaghat, A., Grundy, S.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1980) [Pubmed]
  2. A monoclonal antibody against gamma-glutamyltransferase from human primary hepatoma: its use in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of sera of cancer patients. Taniguchi, N., House, S., Kuzumaki, N., Yokosawa, N., Yamagiwa, S., Iizuka, S., Makita, A., Sekiya, C. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1985) [Pubmed]
  3. Bilary lipid metabolism in obesity. Effects of bile acid feeding before and during weight reduction. Mok, H.Y., von Bergmann, K., Crouse, J.R., Grundy, S.M. Gastroenterology (1979) [Pubmed]
  4. Abnormal processing of the human cholecystokinin receptor gene in association with gallstones and obesity. Miller, L.J., Holicky, E.L., Ulrich, C.D., Wieben, E.D. Gastroenterology (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Helicobacter and cholesterol gallstones: do findings in the mouse apply to man? Hofmann, A.F. Gastroenterology (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. The effect of ursodiol on the efficacy and safety of extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy of gallstones. The Dornier National Biliary Lithotripsy Study. Schoenfield, L.J., Berci, G., Carnovale, R.L., Casarella, W., Caslowitz, P., Chumley, D., Davis, R.C., Gillenwater, J.Y., Johnson, A.C., Jones, R.S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  7. Dissolution of cholesterol gallbladder stones by methyl tert-butyl ether administered by percutaneous transhepatic catheter. Thistle, J.L., May, G.R., Bender, C.E., Williams, H.J., LeRoy, A.J., Nelson, P.E., Peine, C.J., Petersen, B.T., McCullough, J.E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  8. Effects of ursodeoxycholic acid and aspirin on the formation of lithogenic bile and gallstones during loss of weight. Broomfield, P.H., Chopra, R., Sheinbaum, R.C., Bonorris, G.G., Silverman, A., Schoenfield, L.J., Marks, J.W. N. Engl. J. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  9. Development of lithogenic bile during puberty in Pima indians. Bennion, L.J., Knowler, W.C., Mott, D.M., Spagnola, A.M., Bennett, P.H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1979) [Pubmed]
  10. Chenodeoxycholic acid treatment of gallstones. A follow-up report and analysis of factors influencing response to therapy. Iser, J.H., Dowling, H., Mok, H.Y., Bell, G.D. N. Engl. J. Med. (1975) [Pubmed]
  11. Treatment of gallstones with chenodeoxycholic acid and phenobarbital. Coyne, M.J., Bonorris, G.G., Chung, A., Goldstein, L.I., Lahana, D., Schoenfield, L.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1975) [Pubmed]
  12. Chenodeoxycholic acid, gallstones and vitamin C. Ginter, E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  13. Chenotherapy for gallstone dissolution. II. Induced changes in bile composition and gallstone response. Hofmann, A.F., Thistle, J.L., Klein, P.D., Szczepanik, P.A., Yu, P.Y. JAMA (1978) [Pubmed]
  14. Weaving betaKlotho into bile acid metabolism. Moschetta, A., Kliewer, S.A. J. Clin. Invest. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Molecular genetic evidence of bacterial colonization of cholesterol gallstones. Swidsinski, A., Ludwig, W., Pahlig, H., Priem, F. Gastroenterology (1995) [Pubmed]
  16. Apolipoprotein E polymorphism and gallstones. Bertomeu, A., Ros, E., Zambón, D., Vela, M., Pérez-Ayuso, R.M., Targarona, E., Trías, M., Sanllehy, C., Casals, E., Ribó, J.M. Gastroenterology (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Coinheritance of Gilbert syndrome increases the risk for developing gallstones in patients with hereditary spherocytosis. del Giudice, E.M., Perrotta, S., Nobili, B., Specchia, C., d'Urzo, G., Iolascon, A. Blood (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Pathogenesis of biliary sludge. Lee, S.P. Hepatology (1990) [Pubmed]
  19. Monooctanoin, a dissolution agent for retained cholesterol bile duct stones: physical properties and clinical application. Thistle, J.L., Carlson, G.L., Hofmann, A.F., LaRusso, N.F., MacCarty, R.L., Flynn, G.L., Higuchi, W.I., Babayan, V.K. Gastroenterology (1980) [Pubmed]
  20. Quantitative analysis of major, minor and trace elements in gallbladder bile of patients with and without gallstones. Harvey, R.C., Taylor, D., Petrunka, C.N., Murray, A.D., Strasberg, S.M. Hepatology (1985) [Pubmed]
  21. Mucus hypersecretion in the gallbladder epithelium of ground squirrels fed a lithogenic diet for the induction of cholesterol gallstones. Pemsingh, R.S., MacPherson, B.R., Scott, G.W. Hepatology (1987) [Pubmed]
  22. Composition of gall bladder stones associated with octreotide: response to oral ursodeoxycholic acid. Hussaini, S.H., Pereira, S.P., Murphy, G.M., Kennedy, C., Wass, J.A., Besser, G.M., Dowling, R.H. Gut (1995) [Pubmed]
  23. Expression and regulation of scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) in gall bladder epithelium. Miquel, J.F., Moreno, M., Amigo, L., Molina, H., Mardones, P., Wistuba, I.I., Rigotti, A. Gut (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. Estrogen receptor alpha, but not beta, plays a major role in 17beta-estradiol-induced murine cholesterol gallstones. Wang, H.H., Afdhal, N.H., Wang, D.Q. Gastroenterology (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. Hepatic cholesterol metabolism in patients with cholesterol gallstones: enhanced intracellular transport of cholesterol. Ito, T., Kawata, S., Imai, Y., Kakimoto, H., Trzaskos, J.M., Matsuzawa, Y. Gastroenterology (1996) [Pubmed]
  26. Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 is the 85-kilodalton pronase-resistant biliary glycoprotein in the cholesterol crystallization promoting low density protein-lipid complex. Jirsa, M., Muchová, L., Dráberová, L., Dráber, P., Smíd, F., Kuroki, M., Marecek, Z., Groen, A.K. Hepatology (2001) [Pubmed]
  27. Sterol carrier protein 2 participates in hypersecretion of biliary cholesterol during gallstone formation in genetically gallstone-susceptible mice. Fuchs, M., Lammert, F., Wang, D.Q., Paigen, B., Carey, M.C., Cohen, D.E. Biochem. J. (1998) [Pubmed]
  28. Lith6: a new QTL for cholesterol gallstones from an intercross of CAST/Ei and DBA/2J inbred mouse strains. Lyons, M.A., Wittenburg, H., Li, R., Walsh, K.A., Leonard, M.R., Korstanje, R., Churchill, G.A., Carey, M.C., Paigen, B. J. Lipid Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. Defective gallbladder contractility in the ground squirrel and prairie dog during the early stages of cholesterol gallstone formation. Fridhandler, T.M., Davison, J.S., Shaffer, E.A. Gastroenterology (1983) [Pubmed]
  30. Serum lipids and gallstones: a case-control study. Thijs, C., Knipschild, P., Brombacher, P. Gastroenterology (1990) [Pubmed]
  31. Ileal excretion of bile acids: comparison with biliary bile composition and effect of ursodeoxycholic acid treatment. Stiehl, A., Raedsch, R., Rudolph, G. Gastroenterology (1988) [Pubmed]
  32. Bilary lipids and bile acid pool size after vagotomy in man. Evidence against a predisposition to gallstones. Stempel, J.M., Duane, W.C. Gastroenterology (1978) [Pubmed]
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