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Chemical Compound Review

epicholestrol     10,13-dimethyl-17-(6- methylheptan-2-yl)-2...

Synonyms: CHOLESTEROL NF, AGN-PC-009M5O, ARONIS001134, SureCN413494, ACMC-209m13, ...
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Disease relevance of cholesterol


Psychiatry related information on cholesterol


High impact information on cholesterol

  • In addition, we present a working model linking the presumed allosteric property of ACAT with cholesterol trafficking into and out of the endoplasmic reticulum [11].
  • Finally, because of the organizing potential of cholesterol in membranes, disturbances in cellular cholesterol transport have implications for a wide variety of human diseases, of which selected examples are given [12].
  • Oxygenated derivatives of cholesterol (oxysterols) present a remarkably diverse profile of biological activities, including effects on sphingolipid metabolism, platelet aggregation, apoptosis, and protein prenylation [13].
  • Except for 24, 25-epoxysterols, most oxysterols arise from cholesterol by autoxidation or by specific microsomal or mitochondrial oxidations, usually involving cytochrome P-450 species [13].
  • Tissue macrophages may be responsible for this lipid accumulation, because receptor-mediated (adsorptive) endocytosis of lipoprotein-associated cholesterol in these cells is not under negative-feedback control [14].

Chemical compound and disease context of cholesterol


Biological context of cholesterol

  • Due to its presumed role in regulating cellular cholesterol homeostasis, and in various pathophysiological conditions, acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) has attracted much attention [11].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Over the long term, high systolic blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, and smoking were associated with an increased risk of carotid stenosis in this elderly population [2].
  • RESULTS: The B1 variant of the CETP gene was associated with both higher plasma CETP concentrations (mean [+/-SD], 2.29+/-0.62 microg per milliliter for the B1B1 genotype vs. 1.76+/-0.51 microg per milliliter for the B2B2 genotype) and lower HDL cholesterol concentrations (34+/-8 vs. 39+/-10 mg per deciliter) [19].
  • To analyze the relation between age and cholesterol saturation, we studied the rates of hepatic secretion of biliary lipids and the kinetics of cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid in 22 and 18 of the subjects, respectively [20].
  • They also expand the spectrum of phenotypes associated with abnormalities of cholesterol metabolism [21].

Anatomical context of cholesterol


Associations of cholesterol with other chemical compounds


Gene context of cholesterol

  • Overexpression of EL in mice reduced plasma concentrations of HDL cholesterol and its major protein apolipoprotein A-I [32].
  • This apoprotein serves as a cofactor for the plasma lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) enzyme responsible for the formation of most cholesteryl esters in plasma, and also promotes cholesterol efflux from cells [33].
  • The low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) is responsible for the uptake of cholesterol-containing lipoprotein particles into cells [34].
  • As in the regulation of cholesterol metabolism by proteolysis of a membrane-bound transcription factor, PS1 appears to facilitate a proteolytic activity that cleaves the integral membrane domain of APP [35].
  • The mouse model may provide an important resource for studying the role of NPC1 in cholesterol homeostasis and neurodegeneration and for assessing the efficacy of new drugs for NP-C disease [36].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of cholesterol


  1. Normalization on triglycerides in type IV hyperlipoproteinemia fails to correct low levels of high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol. Witztum, J.L., Dillingham, M.A., Giese, W., Bateman, J., Diekman, C., Blaufuss, E.K., Weidman, S., Schonfeld, G. N. Engl. J. Med. (1980) [Pubmed]
  2. Cumulative effects of high cholesterol levels, high blood pressure, and cigarette smoking on carotid stenosis. Wilson, P.W., Hoeg, J.M., D'Agostino, R.B., Silbershatz, H., Belanger, A.M., Poehlmann, H., O'Leary, D., Wolf, P.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. Cholesterol crystals and the formation of cholesterol gallstones. Sedaghat, A., Grundy, S.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1980) [Pubmed]
  4. Plasma lipids and lipoproteins in vegetarians and controls. Sacks, F.M., Castelli, W.P., Donner, A., Kass, E.H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1975) [Pubmed]
  5. Serum lipoproteins and coronary heart disease in a population study of Hawaii Japanese men. Rhoads, G.G., Gulbrandsen, C.L., Kagan, A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  6. Effects of diet and exercise in men and postmenopausal women with low levels of HDL cholesterol and high levels of LDL cholesterol. Stefanick, M.L., Mackey, S., Sheehan, M., Ellsworth, N., Haskell, W.L., Wood, P.D. N. Engl. J. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Alcohol consumption and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol. Kreiss, K., Zack, M.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1981) [Pubmed]
  8. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and the risk of dementia with stroke. Moroney, J.T., Tang, M.X., Berglund, L., Small, S., Merchant, C., Bell, K., Stern, Y., Mayeux, R. JAMA (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. UK heart disease prevention project: incidence and mortality results. Rose, G., Tunstall-Pedoe, H.D., Heller, R.F. Lancet (1983) [Pubmed]
  10. Cholesterol depletion inhibits the generation of beta-amyloid in hippocampal neurons. Simons, M., Keller, P., De Strooper, B., Beyreuther, K., Dotti, C.G., Simons, K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase. Chang, T.Y., Chang, C.C., Cheng, D. Annu. Rev. Biochem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Mechanisms for cellular cholesterol transport: defects and human disease. Ikonen, E. Physiol. Rev. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Oxysterols: modulators of cholesterol metabolism and other processes. Schroepfer, G.J. Physiol. Rev. (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. Transport of cholesterol. Norum, K.R., Berg, T., Helgerud, P., Drevon, C.A. Physiol. Rev. (1983) [Pubmed]
  15. Sex differences in the effect of diabetes mellitus on lipoprotein triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations. Walden, C.E., Knopp, R.H., Wahl, P.W., Beach, K.W., Strandness, E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  16. Accuracy of numerical coronary profile. Correlation of risk factors with arteriographically documented severity of atherosclerosis. Salel, A.F., Fong, A., Zelis, B.S., Miller, R.R., Borhani, N.O., Mason, D.T. N. Engl. J. Med. (1977) [Pubmed]
  17. Failure of complete bile diversion and oral bile acid therapy in the treatment of homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. Deckelbaum, R.J., Lees, R.S., Small, D.M., Hedberg, S.E., Grundy, S.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1977) [Pubmed]
  18. Cost effectiveness of simvastatin treatment to lower cholesterol levels in patients with coronary heart disease. Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study Group. Johannesson, M., Jönsson, B., Kjekshus, J., Olsson, A.G., Pedersen, T.R., Wedel, H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  19. The role of a common variant of the cholesteryl ester transfer protein gene in the progression of coronary atherosclerosis. The Regression Growth Evaluation Statin Study Group. Kuivenhoven, J.A., Jukema, J.W., Zwinderman, A.H., de Knijff, P., McPherson, R., Bruschke, A.V., Lie, K.I., Kastelein, J.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. Influence of age on secretion of cholesterol and synthesis of bile acids by the liver. Einarsson, K., Nilsell, K., Leijd, B., Angelin, B. N. Engl. J. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  21. The gene mutated in bare patches and striated mice encodes a novel 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Liu, X.Y., Dangel, A.W., Kelley, R.I., Zhao, W., Denny, P., Botcherby, M., Cattanach, B., Peters, J., Hunsicker, P.R., Mallon, A.M., Strivens, M.A., Bate, R., Miller, W., Rhodes, M., Brown, S.D., Herman, G.E. Nat. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  22. Signal transduction from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell nucleus. Pahl, H.L. Physiol. Rev. (1999) [Pubmed]
  23. Transport of lipids from golgi to plasma membrane is defective in tangier disease patients and Abc1-deficient mice. Orsó, E., Broccardo, C., Kaminski, W.E., Böttcher, A., Liebisch, G., Drobnik, W., Götz, A., Chambenoit, O., Diederich, W., Langmann, T., Spruss, T., Luciani, M.F., Rothe, G., Lackner, K.J., Chimini, G., Schmitz, G. Nat. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. The gene encoding ATP-binding cassette transporter 1 is mutated in Tangier disease. Bodzioch, M., Orsó, E., Klucken, J., Langmann, T., Böttcher, A., Diederich, W., Drobnik, W., Barlage, S., Büchler, C., Porsch-Ozcürümez, M., Kaminski, W.E., Hahmann, H.W., Oette, K., Rothe, G., Aslanidis, C., Lackner, K.J., Schmitz, G. Nat. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. Effects of oral contraceptives on the gallbladder bile of normal women. Bennion, L.J., Ginsberg, R.L., Gernick, M.B., Bennett, P.H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  26. Regulation of the activity of the low density lipoprotein receptor in human fibroblasts. Brown, M.S., Goldstein, J.L. Cell (1975) [Pubmed]
  27. Selective deficiency of hepatic triglyceride lipase in uremic patients. Mordasini, R., Frey, F., Flury, W., Klose, G., Greten, H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1977) [Pubmed]
  28. Dispatched, a novel sterol-sensing domain protein dedicated to the release of cholesterol-modified hedgehog from signaling cells. Burke, R., Nellen, D., Bellotto, M., Hafen, E., Senti, K.A., Dickson, B.J., Basler, K. Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  29. Estrogen and progestin compared with simvastatin for hypercholesterolemia in postmenopausal women. Darling, G.M., Johns, J.A., McCloud, P.I., Davis, S.R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  30. Dehydroepiandrosterone replacement in women with adrenal insufficiency. Arlt, W., Callies, F., van Vlijmen, J.C., Koehler, I., Reincke, M., Bidlingmaier, M., Huebler, D., Oettel, M., Ernst, M., Schulte, H.M., Allolio, B. N. Engl. J. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  31. Effect of cholesterol on production of thromboxane b2 by platelets in vitro. Stuart, M.J., Gerrard, J.M., White, J.G. N. Engl. J. Med. (1980) [Pubmed]
  32. A novel endothelial-derived lipase that modulates HDL metabolism. Jaye, M., Lynch, K.J., Krawiec, J., Marchadier, D., Maugeais, C., Doan, K., South, V., Amin, D., Perrone, M., Rader, D.J. Nat. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  33. An inherited polymorphism in the human apolipoprotein A-I gene locus related to the development of atherosclerosis. Karathanasis, S.K., Norum, R.A., Zannis, V.I., Breslow, J.L. Nature (1983) [Pubmed]
  34. Molecular basis of familial hypercholesterolaemia from structure of LDL receptor module. Fass, D., Blacklow, S., Kim, P.S., Berger, J.M. Nature (1997) [Pubmed]
  35. Deficiency of presenilin-1 inhibits the normal cleavage of amyloid precursor protein. De Strooper, B., Saftig, P., Craessaerts, K., Vanderstichele, H., Guhde, G., Annaert, W., Von Figura, K., Van Leuven, F. Nature (1998) [Pubmed]
  36. Murine model of Niemann-Pick C disease: mutation in a cholesterol homeostasis gene. Loftus, S.K., Morris, J.A., Carstea, E.D., Gu, J.Z., Cummings, C., Brown, A., Ellison, J., Ohno, K., Rosenfeld, M.A., Tagle, D.A., Pentchev, P.G., Pavan, W.J. Science (1997) [Pubmed]
  37. Defective high-density lipoprotein composition in patients on chronic hemodialysis. A possible mechanism for accelerated atherosclerosis. Rapoport, J., Aviram, M., Chaimovitz, C., Brook, J.G. N. Engl. J. Med. (1978) [Pubmed]
  38. Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis in children: comparison with hemodialysis. Baum, M., Powell, D., Calvin, S., McDaid, T., McHenry, K., Mar, H., Potter, D. N. Engl. J. Med. (1982) [Pubmed]
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