The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Complementation analyses of differentiation-defective embryonal carcinoma cells.

We have generated cell hybrids by fusing embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells which fail to differentiate in response to retinoic acid (RA) and/or hexamethylenebisacetamide (HMBA). The first two classes of hybrids were between an RA- line (also unresponsive to HMBA) that lacks cellular RA binding protein (cRABP) activity and HMBA- lines which possess cRABP and differentiate in the presence of RA. All of the hybrid clones possessed cRABP and differentiated normally upon exposure to either RA or HMBA. When the aforementioned RA- mutant was fused with a second mutant which was refractory to RA and HMBA but possessed cRABP activity, the resultant hybrid clones were responsive to both RA and HMBA and had cRABP activity. These results suggest that all of these mutants were recessive and complementary. Tumors from these hybrid lines differentiated extensively, in some instances much more so than the mutant parental lines and even the wild-type lines from which the mutants were derived. Based upon these observations, we propose that various EC lines might differentiate poorly in tumor form for different reasons. Hybrids between two differentiation-defective, cRABP- lines appeared to be at least partially complemented for responsiveness to RA and HMBA. These hybrids contained low but detectable levels of cRABP. This is not a consequence of tetraploidy since fusions between cells from the same mutant line retained their differentiation-defective phenotype and possessed little or no cRABP activity. Unlike tumors from the other hybrids described above, tumors from these hybrid lines expressed a very restricted pattern of differentiated cell types. This might be because the mutant lines in the latter hybrids originally derived from the same wild-type EC line.[1]


  1. Complementation analyses of differentiation-defective embryonal carcinoma cells. McCue, P.A., Gubler, M.L., Maffei, L., Sherman, M.I. Dev. Biol. (1984) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities