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Disease relevance of Chimera


Psychiatry related information on Chimera

  • Near-tetraploid hybrids which contained an approximately complete chromosomal complement from both parental cells were nontumorigenic when 1 X 10(7) cells were injected s.c. into athymic (nude) mice, whereas the parental HT1080 cells produced tumors in 100% of the animals with no latency period following injection of 2 X 10(6) cells [6].
  • To assess this strategy, we constructed a panel of hybrids that selectively retain the portion of human chromosome band 11p13 that includes genes responsible for Wilms tumor, aniridia, genitourinary anomalies, and mental retardation (constituting the WAGR syndrome) [7].
  • Locomotor activity responses to sub-hypnotic doses of ethanol (ETOH) were assessed in selected lines of mice (LS and SS), inbred strains, and their F1 hybrids [8].

High impact information on Chimera


Chemical compound and disease context of Chimera

  • The importance of the carrier molecule for the enhanced immunogenicity of the HIB Ps-protein conjugates was shown by the failure of HIB Ps hybrids prepared with either the homologous polysaccharide or pneumococcus type 3 polysaccharide to induce antibodie in mice [14].
  • From all solid tumors and ascites and from various organs of tumor-bearing mice, which were explanted into culture in double selective medium containing hypoxanthine, aminopterin, and thymidine plus ouabain (in which only hybrids between 4T00.1 and normal cells can survive), proliferating and nonproliferating cultures were obtained [15].
  • A factor controlling the extent of development of inherited melanomas was demonstrated to be associated only with LG V loci, implying predominant control by a single gene, which probably determines the completeness of differentiation of macromelanophores in hybrids [16].
  • The in vivo relationship of AR and HNE was explored by treating human GCA temporal artery-severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mouse chimeras with the AR inhibitors Sorbinil and Zopolrestat [17].
  • Simian virus 40 infection of these hybrids led to the production of two distinct 28S rRNA species as analyzed by agarose/2.4% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis [18].

Biological context of Chimera


Anatomical context of Chimera

  • Rather, extinction of GH expression in fibroblast x pituitary hybrids was accompanied by loss of GHF-1 protein and mRNA expression, suggesting that extinction occurs by repression of this trans-activator [24].
  • These results suggest that the human gene coding for NuMA protein, unlike other genes coding for human specific nuclear proteins, can be expressed in human/hamster hybrid cells and that the cell hybrids will be useful in further characterization of NuMA protein [25].
  • The frequencies and the rates of segregation of the Emtr and Thgr (thioguanine-resistant, an X-linked recessive mutation) markers were determined from hybrids constructed between an Emtr-Thgr CHO cell line and various other Chinese hamster lines (V79, M3-1, CHO, GM7S, CHW and CHL) [26].
  • The murine La protein and the RNA binding subclass of calf thymus La protein showed ATPase/dATPase activity in the presence of DNA-RNA or RNA-RNA hybrids [27].
  • Analysis of human hemoglobin switching in MEL x human fetal erythroid cell hybrids [28].

Associations of Chimera with chemical compounds

  • The hybrids formed between near-diploid parental cells resembled Friend cells in the ability to grow in suspension and to synthesize hemoglobin in the presence of the chemical inducers dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and ouabain [29].
  • When grafted onto normal tobacco plants, both octopine- and nopaline-type shoots (including those from somatic hybrids) produced flowers and set seed [30].
  • Hexose transport in hybrids between malignant and normal cells [31].
  • However, generation of these hybrids, using physical or chemical methods such as electrofusion or polyethylene glycol (PEG), has been difficult to standardize [32].
  • However, pretreatment of the Mta+ parent with R6G resulted in hybrids which were Mta-, or diminished in Mta expression [33].

Gene context of Chimera

  • However, GBD hybrids with SIR2, SIR3, or SIR4 cannot establish silencing [34].
  • Although Tme and Igf2r were thought to be identical, they show different patterns of imprinting in interspecies hybrids [35].
  • Here we show that chimeras of P-selectin and immunoglobulin (P-sel-Ig) induced formation of procoagulant microparticles in human blood through P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1; encoded by the Psgl1 gene, officially known as Selpl) [36].
  • With the use of MR-GR chimeras, a segment of the NH2-terminal region of GR (amino acids 105 to 440) was shown to be required for this repression [37].
  • Analysis of chimeras containing elements from human CCR5 and human CCR2B suggested that a complex structure rather than single contact sites is responsible for facilitation of viral entry [3].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Chimera

  • We have used gene targeting to inactivate Sox2, examining the phenotypic consequences in mutant embryos and in chimeras in which the epiblast is rescued with wild-type ES cells [38].
  • Employing a new method for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, irradiation chimeras constructed from various combinations of marrow cells from B10 H-2 recombinant mice and AKR recipients were prepared [39].
  • No identifiable common lymphoid or myeloid progenitor populations were discernable by flow cytometry; however, clonogenic assays suggested an overall increased frequency of blast colony-forming cells and BM chimeras revealed existence of long-term self-renewing PU.1-deficient cells that required PU.1 for lymphoid, but not granulocyte, generation [40].
  • Southern blot hybridization analysis using a panel of human-hamster hybrids showed that human G6Pase is a single-copy gene located on chromosome 17 [41].
  • The hybrids were characterized by analysis of DNA content, P-glycoprotein expression by Western blotting, GST activity by use of 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene as substrate, and sensitivity to reversal of resistance to vincristine by exposure to verapamil [42].


  1. Identification of revertants for the cystic fibrosis delta F508 mutation using STE6-CFTR chimeras in yeast. Teem, J.L., Berger, H.A., Ostedgaard, L.S., Rich, D.P., Tsui, L.C., Welsh, M.J. Cell (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis repressed by microglial paralysis. Heppner, F.L., Greter, M., Marino, D., Falsig, J., Raivich, G., Hövelmeyer, N., Waisman, A., Rülicke, T., Prinz, M., Priller, J., Becher, B., Aguzzi, A. Nat. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Multiple extracellular elements of CCR5 and HIV-1 entry: dissociation from response to chemokines. Atchison, R.E., Gosling, J., Monteclaro, F.S., Franci, C., Digilio, L., Charo, I.F., Goldsmith, M.A. Science (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Extinction of alpha 1-antitrypsin gene expression in somatic cell hybrids: evidence for multiple controls. Bulla, G.A., DeSimone, V., Cortese, R., Fournier, R.E. Genes Dev. (1992) [Pubmed]
  5. p107 is a suppressor of retinoblastoma development in pRb-deficient mice. Robanus-Maandag, E., Dekker, M., van der Valk, M., Carrozza, M.L., Jeanny, J.C., Dannenberg, J.H., Berns, A., te Riele, H. Genes Dev. (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Tumorigenicity of human HT1080 fibrosarcoma X normal fibroblast hybrids: chromosome dosage dependency. Benedict, W.F., Weissman, B.E., Mark, C., Stanbridge, E.J. Cancer Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
  7. A panel of irradiation-reduced hybrids selectively retaining human chromosome 11p13: their structure and use to purify the WAGR gene complex. Glaser, T., Rose, E., Morse, H., Housman, D., Jones, C. Genomics (1990) [Pubmed]
  8. Locomotor activity responses to ethanol in selectively bred long- and short-sleep mice, two inbred mouse strains, and their F1 hybrids. Phillips, T.J., Dudek, B.C. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  9. Chimera analysis of the Clock mutation in mice shows that complex cellular integration determines circadian behavior. Low-Zeddies, S.S., Takahashi, J.S. Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. A requirement for Flk1 in primitive and definitive hematopoiesis and vasculogenesis. Shalaby, F., Ho, J., Stanford, W.L., Fischer, K.D., Schuh, A.C., Schwartz, L., Bernstein, A., Rossant, J. Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Regions in beta-chemokine receptors CCR5 and CCR2b that determine HIV-1 cofactor specificity. Rucker, J., Samson, M., Doranz, B.J., Libert, F., Berson, J.F., Yi, Y., Smyth, R.J., Collman, R.G., Broder, C.C., Vassart, G., Doms, R.W., Parmentier, M. Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. An X-chromosome linked locus contributes to abnormal placental development in mouse interspecific hybrid. Zechner, U., Reule, M., Orth, A., Bonhomme, F., Strack, B., Guénet, n.u.l.l., Hameister, H., Fundele, R. Nat. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. A central role for microvillous receptor presentation in leukocyte adhesion under flow. von Andrian, U.H., Hasslen, S.R., Nelson, R.D., Erlandsen, S.L., Butcher, E.C. Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. Preparation, characterization, and immunogenicity of Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide-protein conjugates. Schneerson, R., Barrera, O., Sutton, A., Robbins, J.B. J. Exp. Med. (1980) [Pubmed]
  15. Fusion of plasmacytoma and host cells in vivo: selection of proliferating and nonproliferating cultures. Ber, R., Lanir, N. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1984) [Pubmed]
  16. Linkage group V of platyfishes and Swordtails of the genus Xiphophorus (Poeciliidae): linkage of loci for malate dehydrogenase-2 and esterase-1 and esterase-4 with a gene controlling the severity of hybrid melanomas. Morizot, D.C., Siciliano, M.J. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1983) [Pubmed]
  17. Aldose reductase functions as a detoxification system for lipid peroxidation products in vasculitis. Rittner, H.L., Hafner, V., Klimiuk, P.A., Szweda, L.I., Goronzy, J.J., Weyand, C.M. J. Clin. Invest. (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Reactivation of silent rRNA genes by simian virus 40 in human-mouse hybrid cells. Soprano, K.J., Dev, V.G., Croce, C.M., Baserga, R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1979) [Pubmed]
  19. MSX1 inhibits myoD expression in fibroblast x 10T1/2 cell hybrids. Woloshin, P., Song, K., Degnin, C., Killary, A.M., Goldhamer, D.J., Sassoon, D., Thayer, M.J. Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. Reversal of X-inactivation in female mouse somatic cells hybridized with murine teratocarcinoma stem cells in vitro. Takagi, N., Yoshida, M.A., Sugawara, O., Sasaki, M. Cell (1983) [Pubmed]
  21. Structure of the adenovirus 2 early mRNAs. Berk, A.J., Sharp, P.A. Cell (1978) [Pubmed]
  22. Kinetoplastid RNA editing: in vitro formation of cytochrome b gRNA-mRNA chimeras from synthetic substrate RNAs. Harris, M.E., Hajduk, S.L. Cell (1992) [Pubmed]
  23. The yeast UASG is a transcriptional enhancer in human HeLa cells in the presence of the GAL4 trans-activator. Webster, N., Jin, J.R., Green, S., Hollis, M., Chambon, P. Cell (1988) [Pubmed]
  24. Extinction of growth hormone expression in somatic cell hybrids involves repression of the specific trans-activator GHF-1. McCormick, A., Wu, D., Castrillo, J.L., Dana, S., Strobl, J., Thompson, E.B., Karin, M. Cell (1988) [Pubmed]
  25. Human-specific nuclear protein that associates with the polar region of the mitotic apparatus: distribution in a human/hamster hybrid cell. Lydersen, B.K., Pettijohn, D.E. Cell (1980) [Pubmed]
  26. Evidence for functional hemizygosity at the Emtr locus in CHO cells through segregation analysis. Gupta, R.S., Chan, D.Y., Siminovitch, L. Cell (1978) [Pubmed]
  27. Characterization of the autoantigen La as a nucleic acid-dependent ATPase/dATPase with melting properties. Bachmann, M., Pfeifer, K., Schröder, H.C., Müller, W.E. Cell (1990) [Pubmed]
  28. Analysis of human hemoglobin switching in MEL x human fetal erythroid cell hybrids. Papayannopoulou, T., Brice, M., Stamatoyannopoulos, G. Cell (1986) [Pubmed]
  29. Hemoglobin synthesis in cell hybrids formed between teratocarcinoma and Friend erythroleukemia cells. McBurney, M.W. Cell (1977) [Pubmed]
  30. Retention of tumor markers in F1 progeny plants from in vitro induced octopine and nopaline tumor tissues. Wullems, G.J., Molendijk, L., Ooms, G., Schilperoort, R.A. Cell (1981) [Pubmed]
  31. Hexose transport in hybrids between malignant and normal cells. Pasternak, C.A., Micklem, K.J., Elliott, K.R., Plagemann, P.G., Wohlhueter, R.M. Nature (1982) [Pubmed]
  32. A new genetic method to generate and isolate small, short-lived but highly potent dendritic cell-tumor cell hybrid vaccines. Phan, V., Errington, F., Cheong, S.C., Kottke, T., Gough, M., Altmann, S., Brandenburger, A., Emery, S., Strome, S., Bateman, A., Bonnotte, B., Melcher, A., Vile, R. Nat. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  33. Mitochondria control expression of a murine cell surface antigen. Smith, R., Huston, M.M., Jenkins, R.N., Huston, D.P., Rich, R.R. Nature (1983) [Pubmed]
  34. Targeting of SIR1 protein establishes transcriptional silencing at HM loci and telomeres in yeast. Chien, C.T., Buck, S., Sternglanz, R., Shore, D. Cell (1993) [Pubmed]
  35. Genetic analysis of genomic imprinting: an Imprintor-1 gene controls inactivation of the paternal copy of the mouse Tme locus. Forejt, J., Gregorová, S. Cell (1992) [Pubmed]
  36. Interaction of P-selectin and PSGL-1 generates microparticles that correct hemostasis in a mouse model of hemophilia A. Hrachovinová, I., Cambien, B., Hafezi-Moghadam, A., Kappelmayer, J., Camphausen, R.T., Widom, A., Xia, L., Kazazian, H.H., Schaub, R.G., McEver, R.P., Wagner, D.D. Nat. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  37. Mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptor activities distinguished by nonreceptor factors at a composite response element. Pearce, D., Yamamoto, K.R. Science (1993) [Pubmed]
  38. Multipotent cell lineages in early mouse development depend on SOX2 function. Avilion, A.A., Nicolis, S.K., Pevny, L.H., Perez, L., Vivian, N., Lovell-Badge, R. Genes Dev. (2003) [Pubmed]
  39. Restricted antibody formation to sheep erythrocytes of allogeneic bone marrow chimeras histoincompatible at the K end of the H-2 complex. Onoé, K., Yasumizu, R., Oh-Ishi, T., Kakinuma, M., Good, R.A., Morikawa, K. J. Exp. Med. (1981) [Pubmed]
  40. PU.1 regulates the commitment of adult hematopoietic progenitors and restricts granulopoiesis. Dakic, A., Metcalf, D., Di Rago, L., Mifsud, S., Wu, L., Nutt, S.L. J. Exp. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  41. Identification of mutations in the gene for glucose-6-phosphatase, the enzyme deficient in glycogen storage disease type 1a. Lei, K.J., Pan, C.J., Shelly, L.L., Liu, J.L., Chou, J.Y. J. Clin. Invest. (1994) [Pubmed]
  42. Dominant expression of multiple drug resistance after in vitro X-irradiation exposure in intraspecific Chinese hamster ovary hybrid cells. McClean, S., Hosking, L.K., Hill, B.T. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1993) [Pubmed]
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