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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Mutagenicity of lichen constituents.

Usnic acid (the most abundant lichen constituents), physodic, and physodalic acids isolated from Hypogymnia enteromorph (Ach.) Nyl. were tested for mutagenicity in the Ames Salmonella/microsome assay. Physodalic acid exhibited clear dose-related mutagenicity against Salmonella typhimurium strain TA 100 with or without S9 mix in both plate-incorporation and preincubation assays. The addition of S9 mix increased the number of revertants approximately threefold and fourfold in preincubation and plate-incorporation assays, respectively.[1]


  1. Mutagenicity of lichen constituents. Shibamoto, T., Wei, C.I. Environmental mutagenesis. (1984) [Pubmed]
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