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Chemical Compound Review

Usniacin     2,6-diethanoyl-7,9-dihydroxy- 8,9b-dimethyl...

Synonyms: usneine, Usnein, Usno, Usninic acid, usninic acie, ...
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Disease relevance of Usnein


High impact information on Usnein


Chemical compound and disease context of Usnein


Biological context of Usnein


Anatomical context of Usnein

  • Atranorin and fumarprotocetraric acid did not exhibit anti-proliferative effects but usnic acid was active against all test cell lines with EC50 values of 4.3-8.2 microg/ml [9].
  • Treatment of infected macrophages with 40 or 80microg/ml usnic acid induced marked cytoplasm vacuolation in intracellular amastigote forms, with disorganization of parasite kinetoplast and mitochondria, but with no significant ultrastructural damage to the host cells [10].
  • The slight increase in the micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes without affecting DNA synthesis suggests an effect of usnic acid on spindle apparatus [11].
  • Usnic acid (the most abundant lichen constituents), physodic, and physodalic acids isolated from Hypogymnia enteromorph (Ach.) Nyl. were tested for mutagenicity in the Ames Salmonella/microsome assay [12].
  • The study was aimed to optimize the culture conditions for the production of usnic acid in the cultured cell aggregates composed of symbionts in lichen Usnea ghattensis in vitro [13].

Associations of Usnein with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Usnein

  • The property of usnic acid as a non-genotoxic anti-cancer agent that works in a p53-independent manner makes it a potential candidate for novel cancer therapy [17].
  • In MCF7 cells treated with usnic acid, although there was an accumulation of p53 and p21 proteins, the transcriptional activity of p53 remained unaffected [17].
  • Usnic acid resulted to be the best UVB filter, with an in vivo protection factor similar to Nivea sun Spray LSF 5 [18].
  • (+)Usnic acid at a concentration of 0.75 microM inhibited ADP/O ratio by 50%, caused maximal stimulation of both state-4 respiration (100%) and ATPase activity (300%) [14].
  • In Romania, Usnea barbata was mentioned in 1929 among the plants known by Romanian people with popular names: "Bear's beard", "Trees' dandruff", "Woman's long hair" (1). "Farmacia naturii" (2) and "Flora medicinală a Romaniei" (3) have mentioned that Usnea barbata (L) Mott contains usnic acid-substance with broad antibiotic spectrum [19].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Usnein


  1. Severe hepatotoxicity associated with the use of weight loss diet supplements containing ma huang or usnic acid. Neff, G.W., Reddy, K.R., Durazo, F.A., Meyer, D., Marrero, R., Kaplowitz, N. J. Hepatol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Usnic acid derivatives as potential antineoplastic agents. Takai, M., Uehara, Y., Beisler, J.A. J. Med. Chem. (1979) [Pubmed]
  3. Fulminant liver failure due to usnic acid for weight loss. Durazo, F.A., Lassman, C., Han, S.H., Saab, S., Lee, N.P., Kawano, M., Saggi, B., Gordon, S., Farmer, D.G., Yersiz, H., Goldstein, R.L., Ghobrial, M., Busuttil, R.W. Am. J. Gastroenterol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Usnic acid-induced necrosis of cultured mouse hepatocytes: inhibition of mitochondrial function and oxidative stress. Han, D., Matsumaru, K., Rettori, D., Kaplowitz, N. Biochem. Pharmacol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Usnic acid and diffractaic acid as analgesic and antipyretic components of Usnea diffracta. Okuyama, E., Umeyama, K., Yamazaki, M., Kinoshita, Y., Yamamoto, Y. Planta Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. Molecular characterization and action of usnic acid: a drug that inhibits proliferation of mouse polyomavirus in vitro and whose main target is RNA transcription. Campanella, L., Delfini, M., Ercole, P., Iacoangeli, A., Risuleo, G. Biochimie (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Pharmacokinetics of D(+)-usnic acid in rabbits after intravenous and oral administration. Krishna, D.R., Venkataramana, D. Drug Metab. Dispos. (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. Seasonal trends in usnic acid concentrations of Arctic, alpine and Patagonian populations of the lichen Flavocetraria nivalis. Bjerke, J.W., Elvebakk, A., Domínguez, E., Dahlback, A. Phytochemistry (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Solubilization of poorly soluble lichen metabolites for biological testing on cell lines. Kristmundsdóttir, T., Jónsdóttir, E., Ogmundsdóttir, H.M., Ingólfsdóttir, K. European journal of pharmaceutical sciences : official journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Effect of usnic acid from the lichen Cladonia substellata on Trypanosoma cruzi in vitro: an ultrastructural study. De Carvalho, E.A., Andrade, P.P., Silva, N.H., Pereira, E.C., Figueiredo, R.C. Micron (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Mitodepressive, clastogenic and biochemical effects of (+)-usnic acid in mice. al-Bekairi, A.M., Qureshi, S., Chaudhry, M.A., Krishna, D.R., Shah, A.H. Journal of ethnopharmacology. (1991) [Pubmed]
  12. Mutagenicity of lichen constituents. Shibamoto, T., Wei, C.I. Environmental mutagenesis. (1984) [Pubmed]
  13. Experimental studies on the growth and usnic acid production in "lichen"Usnea ghattensis in vitro. Behera, B.C., Verma, N., Sonone, A., Makhija, U. Microbiol. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Lichen acids as uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation of mouse-liver mitochondria. Abo-Khatwa, A.N., al-Robai, A.A., al-Jawhari, D.A. Nat. Toxins (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. Influences of nitrogen sources on usnic acid production in a cultured Mycobiont of the lichen Usnea hirta (L.) Wigg. Kinoshita, Y., Yamamoto, Y., Kurokawa, T., Yoshimura, I. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Oxidative stress and usnic acid content in Parmelia caperata and Parmelia soredians (Lichenes). Caviglia, A.M., Nicora, P., Giordani, P., Brunialti, G., Modenesi, P. Farmaco (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Usnic acid: a non-genotoxic compound with anti-cancer properties. Mayer, M., O'Neill, M.A., Murray, K.E., Santos-Magalhães, N.S., Carneiro-Leão, A.M., Thompson, A.M., Appleyard, V.C. Anticancer Drugs (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Protection against UVB irradiation by natural filters extracted from lichens. Rancan, F., Rosan, S., Boehm, K., Fernández, E., Hidalgo, M.E., Quihot, W., Rubio, C., Boehm, F., Piazena, H., Oltmanns, U. J. Photochem. Photobiol. B, Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. Contributions to the complex study of some lichens-Usnea genus. Pharmacological studies on Usnea barbata and Usnea hirta species. Dobrescu, D., Tănăsescu, M., Mezdrea, A., Ivan, C., Ordosch, E., Neagoe, F., Rizeanu, A., Trifu, L., Enescu, V. Romanian journal of physiology : physiological sciences / [Academia de Stiinte Medicale]. (1993) [Pubmed]
  20. Antimitotic effects of usnic acid on different biological systems. Cardarelli, M., Serino, G., Campanella, L., Ercole, P., De Cicco Nardone, F., Alesiani, O., Rossiello, F. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of usnic acid in plasma. Venkataramana, D., Krishna, D.R. J. Chromatogr. (1992) [Pubmed]
  22. Determination of usnic acid in lichen toxic to elk by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet and tandem mass spectrometry detection. Roach, J.A., Musser, S.M., Morehouse, K., Woo, J.Y. J. Agric. Food Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
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