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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Papillomas on fish exposed to chlorinated wastewater effluent.

The presence of carcinogenic and mutagenic chemical(s) in the effluent of a wastewater treatment plant was indicated by papillomas developing on caged black bullheads (Ictalurus melas), hepatic enzyme induction in exposed fish, and Ames test mutagenicity of organic extracts of the wastewater. Although virus-like particles have been reported in papillomas of several other fish species, no evidence was obtained for the presence of viruses in the black bullhead papillomas. Mutagenic and carcinogenic chemicals were not identified in the wastewater, but chlorination was implicated as a factor contributing to the induction of the papillomas. The prevalence of papillomas on wild black bullheads exposed to the effluent decreased from 73 to 23% after the amount of residual chlorine ( CAS: 7782-50-5) in the effluent leaving the chlorine contact chamber was reduced from 1.3-3.1 mg/liter to 0.25-1.2 mg/liter.[1]


  1. Papillomas on fish exposed to chlorinated wastewater effluent. Grizzle, J.M., Melius, P., Strength, D.R. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1984) [Pubmed]
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