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Chemical Compound Review

chloride     chloride

Synonyms: Perchloride, Chlorine ion, chloride ion, Chloride(1-), Chlorine(1-), ...
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Disease relevance of CHLORINE

  • The prevalence of papillomas on wild black bullheads exposed to the effluent decreased from 73 to 23% after the amount of residual chlorine (CAS: 7782-50-5) in the effluent leaving the chlorine contact chamber was reduced from 1.3-3.1 mg/liter to 0.25-1.2 mg/liter [1].
  • AcEW-ice generating 70 and 150 ppm of Cl2 reduced E. coli O157:H7 by 2.0 log CFU/g. Further significant reduction of E. coli O157:H7 (2.5 log CFU/g) was demonstrated by treatment with AcEW-ice generating 240 ppm of Cl2 [2].
  • Our results demonstrate down-regulation of renal chloride transporters/channels during sepsis, which is probably mediated by proinflammatory cytokines and accounts for the development of LPS-induced tubular dysfunction [3].

High impact information on CHLORINE

  • Enzyme inactivation was a major factor limiting the yield of 1O2 with both Cl- and Br-. While the MPO-H2O2-halide systems can efficiently produce 1O2, the conditions required are not physiologic, which suggests that the chemiluminescence of the stimulated neutrophil does not derive from 1O2 generated by a MPO mechanism [4].
  • Alteration of the extracellular anion environment by replacement of chloride ions (Cl-) with thiocyanate ions (SCN-) in normal Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate solution (NKRB) induced sustained development of basal tension in isolated aortas from male adult Sprague-Dawley and Long-Evans rats, but not from females of these strains [5].
  • Although AcEW-ice generating 30 ppm Cl2 had no effect on L. monocytogenes cell counts, AcEW-ice generating 70 to 240 ppm of Cl2 significantly (P < 0.05) reduced L. monocytogenes by ca. 1.5 log CFU/g. E. coli O157:H7 cell counts were reduced by 1.0 log CFU/g with AcEW-ice generating 30 ppm of Cl2 [2].
  • Triethyltin (TET) stimulated the basal respiration of Escherichia coli K-12 membrane vesicles in chloride (Cl-) medium but it had little effect on respiration in sulphate (SO4(2-)) medium [6].
  • Furthermore, concentrations of chloride (Cl) in the sputum supernatant were higher in SBS patients than in healthy subjects, and there was a significant negative correlation between sputum Cl concentrations and exhaled NO concentrations [7].

Biological context of CHLORINE


Associations of chloride with other chemical compounds


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CHLORINE

  • Continuity of bowel was restored after resection of twelve midrectal cancers (6 Dukes' B, 4 Dukes' C and 2 metastatic to liver) by stapling with the SPTU suture gun, following pre-operative radiotherapy and intraoperative topical chemotherapy with 5-flourouracil and mercuric perchloride [12].


  1. Papillomas on fish exposed to chlorinated wastewater effluent. Grizzle, J.M., Melius, P., Strength, D.R. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1984) [Pubmed]
  2. Efficacy of acidic electrolyzed water ice for pathogen control on lettuce. Koseki, S., Isobe, S., Itoh, K. J. Food Prot. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Proinflammatory cytokines cause down-regulation of renal chloride entry pathways during sepsis. Schmidt, C., Höcherl, K., Schweda, F., Bucher, M. Crit. Care Med. (2007) [Pubmed]
  4. Biochemical requirements for singlet oxygen production by purified human myeloperoxidase. Kanofsky, J.R., Wright, J., Miles-Richardson, G.E., Tauber, A.I. J. Clin. Invest. (1984) [Pubmed]
  5. Sexual dimorphism of vascular smooth muscle responsiveness is dependent on anions and estrogen. Zhang, A., Altura, B.T., Altura, B.M. Steroids (1991) [Pubmed]
  6. Effect of triethyltin on Escherichia coli K-12. Leo, A.C., Leaver, D.D. Chem. Biol. Interact. (1977) [Pubmed]
  7. Impairment of airway mucociliary transport in patients with sinobronchial syndrome: role of nitric oxide. Tamaoki, J., Taira, M., Nishimura, K., Nakata, J., Nagai, A. Journal of aerosol medicine : the official journal of the International Society for Aerosols in Medicine. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Different effects of captopril on blood pressure in the acute and chronic two-kidney Goldblatt hypertensive dogs. Ohara, N., Ono, H., Hashimoto, K. Jpn. Circ. J. (1982) [Pubmed]
  9. The Na+:Cl- cotransporter is activated and phosphorylated at the amino-terminal domain upon intracellular chloride depletion. Pacheco-Alvarez, D., Cristóbal, P.S., Meade, P., Moreno, E., Vazquez, N., Muñoz, E., Díaz, A., Juárez, M.E., Giménez, I., Gamba, G. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Luminal chloride-dependent activation of endosome calcium channels: patch clamp study of enlarged endosomes. Saito, M., Hanson, P.I., Schlesinger, P. J. Biol. Chem. (2007) [Pubmed]
  11. 1,2,3-triazole-strapped calix[4]pyrrole: a new membrane transporter for chloride. Fisher, M.G., Gale, P.A., Hiscock, J.R., Hursthouse, M.B., Light, M.E., Schmidtchen, F.P., Tong, C.C. Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (2009) [Pubmed]
  12. Chemoradiotherapeutic prevention of local recurrence after stapled anastomoses in rectal cancer. Anderson, J.M. Scottish medical journal. (1981) [Pubmed]
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