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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

A concise biotyping system for differentiating strains of Escherichia coli.

A six test biotyping system comprising fermentation of dulcitol, sorbose, raffinose, and 5 ketogluconate, motility and production of beta-haemolysis was used to obtain biotype profiles for 514 strains of Escherichia coli isolated from the urinary tract. This profile was suffixed to the API-20E code, recorded when the strains were originally identified. An expanded and reliable biotyping system was thus created giving a greater number of possible biotypes than with either system alone. The sensitivity in terms of distinguishing the organisms studied was therefore greatly increased. The use of O-serotyping in combination with biotyping is discussed. Biotyping can also be usefully supplemented by the determination of the eight commonest E coli O-serotypes. This is of value in many clinical situations where differentiation of organisms is vital to the proper analysis of results.[1]


  1. A concise biotyping system for differentiating strains of Escherichia coli. Gargan, R., Brumfitt, W., Hamilton-Miller, J.M. J. Clin. Pathol. (1982) [Pubmed]
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