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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Abnormalities in long latency responses to superior laryngeal nerve stimulation in adductor spasmodic dysphonia.

Sensorimotor responses to repeated electrical stimulation of the superior laryngeal nerve were compared in 8 patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD) and 11 normal controls to determine if adductor response disinhibition occurred in ADSD. Pairs of electrical pulses were presented at interstimulus intervals varying from 100 to 5,000 milliseconds (ms). Three responses were measured in thyroarytenoid muscles: ipsilateral R1 responses at 17 ms and ipsilateral and contralateral R2 responses between 60 and 75 ms. Conditioned response characteristics, the percent occurrence and percentage amplitude of initial responses, were measures of response inhibition. As a group, the patients had reduced response inhibition: their conditioned ipsilateral R1 response amplitudes were increased, as was the frequency of their conditioned contralateral muscle responses (p < or = .002) compared to normal. However, the patients' initial responses were normal in latency and frequency characteristics, demonstrating that the brain stem mechanisms for these responses were intact. These results suggest a central disinhibition of laryngeal responses to sensory input in ADSD.[1]


  1. Abnormalities in long latency responses to superior laryngeal nerve stimulation in adductor spasmodic dysphonia. Ludlow, C.L., Schulz, G.M., Yamashita, T., Deleyiannis, F.W. The Annals of otology, rhinology, and laryngology. (1995) [Pubmed]
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