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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Brain Stem

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Disease relevance of Brain Stem

  • The brain-stem conduction time of the auditory evoked response (Wave V-I interval) was longer in babies with apnea than in those without it at a similar postconceptional age (at 32 to 33 weeks: mean, 6.16 vs. 5.35 msec, P less than 0.001; at 34 to 35 weeks: mean, 5.98 vs. 5.33 msec, P less than 0.002) [1].
  • However, only the brain stem activation persisted after the injection of sumatriptan had induced complete relief from headache and phono- and photophobia [2].
  • Neurological accompaniments, subacute and usually multifocal, included sensory/sensorimotor neuropathies, cerebellar ataxia, myelopathy, brain stem and limbic encephalopathy [3].
  • Four patients were followed over several days from a state of coma with evidence of preserved brain-stem and cerebral functions to a clinical state compatible with brain death [4].
  • The other neuroblastomas expressed B120 gene product in the nucleus; however, the intensity of staining was much weaker and equivalent to that in developing human brain stem cells in the subventricular region [5].

Psychiatry related information on Brain Stem


High impact information on Brain Stem


Chemical compound and disease context of Brain Stem


Biological context of Brain Stem


Anatomical context of Brain Stem


Associations of Brain Stem with chemical compounds


Gene context of Brain Stem

  • The expression of Nhlh1 in the developing brain stem and in the vagal nuclei in the wild-type mouse further supports this hypothesis [34].
  • In contrast, antisera to NPY and APP labeled local neurons systems in the spinal dorsal horn, in the lateral parts of the brain stem, including the rhombencephalic alar plate, and in the retina [35].
  • Multiple forms of pancreatic polypeptide-related compounds in the lamprey CNS: partial characterization and immunohistochemical localization in the brain stem and spinal cord [35].
  • Selenium-dependent GSH-Px activity did not significantly change in 12-month-old rats but it increased in the lower brain stem of 24-month-old animals [36].
  • PURPOSE: This study was conducted to investigate the incidence of ERBB1 amplification and overexpression in samples of diffusely infiltrative (WHO grades II-IV) pediatric brain stem glioma (BSG) and determine the relationship of these abnormalities to expression and mutation of TP53 and tumor grade [37].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Brain Stem


  1. Clinical apnea and brain-stem neural function in preterm infants. Henderson-Smart, D.J., Pettigrew, A.G., Campbell, D.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  2. Brain stem activation in spontaneous human migraine attacks. Weiller, C., May, A., Limmroth, V., Jüptner, M., Kaube, H., Schayck, R.V., Coenen, H.H., Diener, H.C. Nat. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. ANNA-3 anti-neuronal nuclear antibody: marker of lung cancer-related autoimmunity. Chan, K.H., Vernino, S., Lennon, V.A. Ann. Neurol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Auditory brain-stem responses in brain death. Starr, A. Brain (1976) [Pubmed]
  5. Expression of SMARCF1, a truncated form of SWI1, in neuroblastoma. Takeuchi, T., Nicole, S., Misaki, A., Furihata, M., Iwata, J., Sonobe, H., Ohtsuki, Y. Am. J. Pathol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Neurophysiological support of consciousness during waking and sleep. Gottesmann, C. Prog. Neurobiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Evoked potentials in Huntington's disease. A comparative and longitudinal study. Ehle, A.L., Stewart, R.M., Lellelid, N.A., Leventhal, N.A. Arch. Neurol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  8. The noradrenergic system of aged GDNF heterozygous mice. Zaman, V., Li, Z., Middaugh, L., Ramamoorthy, S., Rohrer, B., Nelson, M.E., Tomac, A.C., Hoffer, B.J., Gerhardt, G.A., Granholm, A.C.h. Cell transplantation. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Enhancement of acetylcholine release during paradoxical sleep in the dorsal tegmental field of the cat brain stem. Kodama, T., Takahashi, Y., Honda, Y. Neurosci. Lett. (1990) [Pubmed]
  10. The distribution of amyloid plaques in the cerebellum and brain stem in Down's syndrome and Alzheimer's disease: a light microscopical analysis. Cole, G., Neal, J.W., Singhrao, S.K., Jasani, B., Newman, G.R. Acta Neuropathol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. Glycyl glutamine, an inhibitory neuropeptide derived from beta-endorphin. Parish, D.C., Smyth, D.G., Normanton, J.R., Wolstencroft, J.H. Nature (1983) [Pubmed]
  12. Perinatal lethality and defects in hindbrain development in mice homozygous for a targeted mutation of the zinc finger gene Krox20. Swiatek, P.J., Gridley, T. Genes Dev. (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. Pharmacology of brain epinephrine neurons. Fuller, R.W. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  14. Brain-stem compression in rheumatoid arthritis. Davidson, R.C., Horn, J.R., Herndon, J.H., Grin, O.D. JAMA (1977) [Pubmed]
  15. The specificity of the 'nonspecific' midline and intralaminar thalamic nuclei. Groenewegen, H.J., Berendse, H.W. Trends Neurosci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  16. Ambulatory norepinephrine treatment of severe autonomic orthostatic hypotension. Oldenburg, O., Mitchell, A., Nürnberger, J., Koeppen, S., Erbel, R., Philipp, T., Kribben, A. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Subarachnoid hemorrhage and endothelial L-arginine pathway in small brain stem arteries in dogs. Katusić, Z.S., Milde, J.H., Cosentino, F., Mitrović, B.S. Stroke (1993) [Pubmed]
  18. Inhibition of trigeminal neurons by intravenous administration of the serotonin (5HT)1B/D receptor agonist zolmitriptan (311C90): are brain stem sites therapeutic target in migraine? Goadsby, P.J., Hoskin, K.L. Pain (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. O2 deprivation induces a major depolarization in brain stem neurons in the adult but not in the neonatal rat. Haddad, G.G., Donnelly, D.F. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1990) [Pubmed]
  20. Relationship of CD4 counts to neurophysiological function in HIV-1--infected homosexual men. Boccellari, A.A., Dilley, J.W., Yingling, C.D., Chambers, D.B., Tauber, M.A., Moss, A.R., Osmond, D.H. Arch. Neurol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  21. Congenital abnormalities in Brazilian children associated with misoprostol misuse in first trimester of pregnancy. Gonzalez, C.H., Marques-Dias, M.J., Kim, C.A., Sugayama, S.M., Da Paz, J.A., Huson, S.M., Holmes, L.B. Lancet (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. Characterization of myelin proteolipid mRNAs in normal and jimpy mice. Gardinier, M.V., Macklin, W.B., Diniak, A.J., Deininger, P.L. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  23. Neuronal nitric oxide reduces sympathetic excitability by modulation of central glutamate effects in pigs. Zanzinger, J., Czachurski, J., Seller, H. Circ. Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  24. Disorder of the inhibitory glycine receptor: inherited myoclonus in Poll Hereford calves. Gundlach, A.L. FASEB J. (1990) [Pubmed]
  25. The renin-angiotensin system in the central control of blood pressure. Rettig, R., Ganten, D., Lang, R.E., Unger, T. Eur. Heart J. (1987) [Pubmed]
  26. 11beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in the brain: a novel regulator of glucocorticoid action? Seckl, J.R. Frontiers in neuroendocrinology. (1997) [Pubmed]
  27. Isolation and characterization of postsynaptic densities from various brain regions: enrichment of different types of postsynaptic densities. Carlin, R.K., Grab, D.J., Cohen, R.S., Siekevitz, P. J. Cell Biol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  28. Distinct angiotensin II receptor in primary cultures of glial cells from rat brain. Raizada, M.K., Phillips, M.I., Crews, F.T., Sumners, C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  29. Specific reduction of calcium-binding protein (28-kilodalton calbindin-D) gene expression in aging and neurodegenerative diseases. Iacopino, A.M., Christakos, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  30. Glycine receptors: heterogeneous and widespread in the mammalian brain. Betz, H. Trends Neurosci. (1991) [Pubmed]
  31. Effect of acute ammonia intoxication on cerebral metabolism in rats with portacaval shunts. Hindfelt, B., Plum, F., Duffy, T.E. J. Clin. Invest. (1977) [Pubmed]
  32. Deletion of phosphodiesterase 4D in mice shortens alpha(2)-adrenoceptor-mediated anesthesia, a behavioral correlate of emesis. Robichaud, A., Stamatiou, P.B., Jin, S.L., Lachance, N., MacDonald, D., Laliberté, F., Liu, S., Huang, Z., Conti, M., Chan, C.C. J. Clin. Invest. (2002) [Pubmed]
  33. Differentiated properties of identified serotonin neurons in dissociated cultures of embryonic rat brain stem. Yamamoto, M., Steinbusch, H.W., Jessell, T.M. J. Cell Biol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  34. Predisposition to arrhythmia and autonomic dysfunction in Nhlh1-deficient mice. Cogliati, T., Good, D.J., Haigney, M., Delgado-Romero, P., Eckhaus, M.A., Koch, W.J., Kirsch, I.R. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  35. Multiple forms of pancreatic polypeptide-related compounds in the lamprey CNS: partial characterization and immunohistochemical localization in the brain stem and spinal cord. Brodin, L., Rawitch, A., Taylor, T., Ohta, Y., Ring, H., Hökfelt, T., Grillner, S., Terenius, L. J. Neurosci. (1989) [Pubmed]
  36. NGF restores decrease in catalase activity and increases superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity in the brain of aged rats. Nisticò, G., Ciriolo, M.R., Fiskin, K., Iannone, M., De Martino, A., Rotilio, G. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  37. ERBB1 is amplified and overexpressed in high-grade diffusely infiltrative pediatric brain stem glioma. Gilbertson, R.J., Hill, D.A., Hernan, R., Kocak, M., Geyer, R., Olson, J., Gajjar, A., Rush, L., Hamilton, R.L., Finkelstein, S.D., Pollack, I.F. Clin. Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  38. Increase of proenkephalin mRNA and enkephalin content of rat striatum after daily injection of haloperidol for 2 to 3 weeks. Tang, F., Costa, E., Schwartz, J.P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1983) [Pubmed]
  39. Nicotine enhances presynaptic and postsynaptic glutamatergic neurotransmission to activate cardiac parasympathetic neurons. Neff, R.A., Humphrey, J., Mihalevich, M., Mendelowitz, D. Circ. Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  40. Microcirculation of the area postrema. Permeability and vascular responses. Faraci, F.M., Choi, J., Baumbach, G.L., Mayhan, W.G., Heistad, D.D. Circ. Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  41. Norepinephrine turnover in the cardiovascular tissues and brain stem of the rabbit during development of one-kidney and two-kidney Goldblatt hypertension. Tanaka, T., Seki, A., Fujii, J., Kurihara, H., Ikeda, M. Hypertension (1982) [Pubmed]
  42. Mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) in the nonhuman primate brain and pituitary. Diano, S., Urbanski, H.F., Horvath, B., Bechmann, I., Kagiya, A., Nemeth, G., Naftolin, F., Warden, C.H., Horvath, T.L. Endocrinology (2000) [Pubmed]
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