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Gene Review

ADSD  -  Striatal degeneration, autosomal dominant

Homo sapiens

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Disease relevance of ADSD

  • CONCLUSIONS: Reduced dysphonia severity during sustained vowels supports task specificity in ADSD but not MTD and highlights a valuable diagnostic marker whose recognition should contribute to improved diagnostic precision [1].
  • Accurate assessment of severity requires knowledge concerning the factors that affect the expression of ADSD signs and symptoms [2].
  • We should bear in mind that clinical Meniere's syndrome involves ADSD [3].
  • Further, 17 of 29 affected ears in patients with ADSD showed fluctuating hearing loss [3].
  • Strained, strangled, and tremulous vocal qualities that are typically seen in adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD), voice tremor (Tremor), and the spastic dysarthria of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) may sound similar and be difficult to differentiate [4].

High impact information on ADSD

  • During speech stress, the CT subjects showed the expected cortisol increase (p < 0.0001), whereas neither AD nor ADSD patients responded significantly [5].
  • OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Lidocaine block of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) has been reported as a procedure for surgical selection of patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD) [6].
  • This investigation assessed the phonatory effects of RLN lidocaine block in ADSD to explore its potential as a diagnostic tool [6].
  • METHODS: Twenty-one consecutive patients with suspected ADSD underwent unilateral RLN block, causing temporary ipsilateral vocal fold paralysis [6].
  • This study examined the diagnostic value of "task specificity" as a marker of ADSD and its potential to differentiate ADSD from muscle tension dysphonia (MTD), a functional voice disorder that can often masquerade as ADSD [1].

Biological context of ADSD

  • 1. CONCLUSIONS: ADSD is an autosomal dominant basal ganglia disease mapping to chromosome 5q13.3-q14.1 [7].
  • Simultaneous electromyographic recordings were made from the thyroarytenoid (TA), cricothyroid (CT), sternothyroid (ST), thyrohyoid (TH) and the posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA) muscles during speech testing in 11 ADSD patients and 10 control subjects [8].
  • Aperiodic segments primarily characterized the phonation of ADSD, followed by frequency shifts and phonatory breaks [9].
  • We questioned whether patients who receive Botox injection for adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD) report postinjection symptoms possibly related to altered mucociliary clearance or laryngeal secretions [10].
  • This study compared speech intelligibility in nondisabled speakers and speakers with adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD) before and after botulinum toxin (Botox) injection [11].

Anatomical context of ADSD


Associations of ADSD with chemical compounds

  • In the ADSD group, audiologic pattern, fluctuations in hearing and results of the glycerol test were also reviewed [3].

Other interactions of ADSD

  • OBJECTIVES: Adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD) has been characterized as a "task specific" laryngeal dystonia, meaning that the severity of dysphonia varies depending on the demands of the vocal task [1].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ADSD

  • METHODS: The authors characterized a large family with autosomal dominant basal ganglia disease (ADSD) clinically and by MRI, MR spectroscopy (MRS), and SPECT [7].
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate expert listeners' perceptions of voice and fluency in persons with adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD) before and after treatment with botulinum toxin type A (Botox), as a function of initial severity of the disorder (while controlling for patients' age at injection) [13].
  • Speech-related changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were measured using H(2)(15)O positron-emission tomography in 9 adults with adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD) before and after botulinum toxin (BTX) injection and 10 age- and gender-matched volunteers without neurological disorders [14].


  1. Task specificity in adductor spasmodic dysphonia versus muscle tension dysphonia. Roy, N., Gouse, M., Mauszycki, S.C., Merrill, R.M., Smith, M.E. Laryngoscope (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Effects of voicing and syntactic complexity on sign expression in adductor spasmodic dysphonia. Erickson, M.L. American journal of speech-language pathology / American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Electrocochleographic findings in cases of autoimmune disease with sensorineural deafness. Kakigi, A., Sawada, S., Takeda, T., Takeuchi, S., Higashiyama, K., Azuma, H., Yamakawa, K. Auris, nasus, larynx. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Spastic/spasmodic vs. tremulous vocal quality: motor speech profile analysis. Lundy, D.S., Roy, S., Xue, J.W., Casiano, R.R., Jassir, D. Journal of voice : official journal of the Voice Foundation. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Blunted stress cortisol response in abstinent alcoholic and polysubstance-abusing men. Lovallo, W.R., Dickensheets, S.L., Myers, D.A., Thomas, T.L., Nixon, S.J. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Lidocaine block of the recurrent laryngeal nerve in adductor spasmodic dysphonia: a multidimensional assessment. Smith, M.E., Roy, N., Wilson, C. Laryngoscope (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Autosomal dominant striatal degeneration (ADSD): clinical description and mapping to 5q13-5q14. Kuhlenbäumer, G., Lüdemann, P., Schirmacher, A., De Vriendt, E., Hünermund, G., Young, P., Hund-Georgiadis, M., Schuierer, G., Möller, H., Ringelstein, E.B., Van Broeckhoven, C., Timmerman, V., Stögbauer, F. Neurology (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Laryngeal muscle activity during speech breaks in adductor spasmodic dysphonia. Nash, E.A., Ludlow, C.L. Laryngoscope (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Variations in adductor spasmodic dysphonia: acoustic evidence. Sapienza, C.M., Murry, T., Brown, W.S. Journal of voice : official journal of the Voice Foundation. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Does botulinum toxin alter laryngeal secretions and mucociliary transport? Fisher, K.V., Giddens, C.L., Gray, S.D. Journal of voice : official journal of the Voice Foundation. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Speech intelligibility in severe adductor spasmodic dysphonia. Bender, B.K., Cannito, M.P., Murry, T., Woodson, G.E. J. Speech Lang. Hear. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Abnormalities in long latency responses to superior laryngeal nerve stimulation in adductor spasmodic dysphonia. Ludlow, C.L., Schulz, G.M., Yamashita, T., Deleyiannis, F.W. The Annals of otology, rhinology, and laryngology. (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. Perceptual analyses of spasmodic dysphonia before and after treatment. Cannito, M.P., Woodson, G.E., Murry, T., Bender, B. Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Alterations in CNS Activity Induced by Botulinum Toxin Treatment in Spasmodic Dysphonia: An H215O PET Study. Ali, S.O., Thomassen, M., Schulz, G.M., Hosey, L.A., Varga, M., Ludlow, C.L., Braun, A.R. J. Speech Lang. Hear. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
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