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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Differentiation-specific expression of human keratin 1 is mediated by a composite AP-1/steroid hormone element.

Human keratin 1 ( HK1) expression is associated with the loss of mitotic activity in epidermal keratinocytes and restricted to an intermediate stage of terminal differentiation. Recently, the control elements that mediate this differentiation-specific expression were identified (Huff, C. A., Yuspa, S. H., and Rosenthal, D. (1993) J. Biol. Chem. 268, 377-384). We now report the characterization of one of these elements. Footprint analysis on a 249-base pair fragment containing the calcium responsive element (CaRE) revealed two adjacent protected regions. The 5' most footprint contains an AP-1 consensus sequence while the 3' footprint encodes two inverted repeats of the canonical hormone response recognition sequence. Deletion of the AP-1-protected region abolished the calcium response in a reporter construct. Calcium activation of the reporter construct containing the intact CaRE was unaffected by the addition of thyroid hormone or estrogen. However, vitamin D3 was able to suppress calcium induction by the CaRE, and this suppression could be abrogated by the coaddition of retinoic acid. These studies show that AP-1 factors bind to the 5' element to mediate the calcium response while members of the steroid hormone receptor superfamily interact with the 3' element to modulate the calcium response.[1]


  1. Differentiation-specific expression of human keratin 1 is mediated by a composite AP-1/steroid hormone element. Lu, B., Rothnagel, J.A., Longley, M.A., Tsai, S.Y., Roop, D.R. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
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