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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Increased activated protein C-protein C inhibitor complex levels in patients with pulmonary embolism.

Activated protein C (APC)-protein C inhibitor (PCI) complex level was examined in 35 patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE) and in 20 healthy volunteers. Thrombin-antithrombin III complex, plasmin alpha 2 plasmin inhibitor complex, and fibrin-D-dimer levels were significantly increased in the patients with PE compared to levels in healthy volunteers. Levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-I, tissue type plasminogen activator, and von Willebrand factor antigens were also significantly increased in patients with PE. Plasma level of APC-PCI complex was increased in most patients with PE and APC-alpha 1 antitrypsin complex level was increased in 13 patients. These complexes were not detected in healthy volunteers. These findings suggested that plasma protein C was activated in patients with PE, and that PCI was the major inhibitor of APC generated in this condition. Thus, regulation of the protein C pathway might play an important role in the pathogenesis of PE.[1]


  1. Increased activated protein C-protein C inhibitor complex levels in patients with pulmonary embolism. Minamikawa, K., Wada, H., Wakita, Y., Ohiwa, M., Tanigawa, M., Deguchi, K., Hiraoka, N., Huzioka, H., Nishioka, J., Hayashi, T. Thromb. Haemost. (1994) [Pubmed]
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