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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Infants' fluoride intake from drinking water alone, and from water added to formula, beverages, and food.

In infants, the majority of total ingested fluoride is obtained from water, formula and beverages prepared with water, baby foods, and dietary fluoride supplements. Few studies have investigated the distribution of fluoride intake from these sources among young children at risk for dental fluorosis. The purpose of this study was to assess estimated water fluoride intake from different sources of water among a birth cohort studied longitudinally from birth until age 9 months. Parental reports were collected at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 9 months of age for water, formula, beverage, and other dietary intake during the preceding week. Fluoride levels of home and child-care tap and bottled water sources were determined. This report estimates daily quantities of fluoride ingested only from water--both by itself and used to reconstitute formula, beverages, and food. Daily fluoride intake from water by itself ranged to 0.43 mg, with mean intakes < 0.05 mg. Water fluoride intake from reconstitution of concentrated infant formula ranged to 1.57 mg, with mean intakes by age from 0.18 to 0.31 mg. Fluoride intake from water added to juices and other beverages ranged to 0.67 mg, with means < 0.05 mg. Estimated total daily water fluoride intake ranged to 1.73 mg fluoride, with means from 0.29 to 0.38 mg.[1]


  1. Infants' fluoride intake from drinking water alone, and from water added to formula, beverages, and food. Levy, S.M., Kohout, F.J., Guha-Chowdhury, N., Kiritsy, M.C., Heilman, J.R., Wefel, J.S. J. Dent. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
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