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MeSH Review

Infant Formula

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Disease relevance of Infant Formula


Psychiatry related information on Infant Formula


High impact information on Infant Formula


Chemical compound and disease context of Infant Formula


Biological context of Infant Formula


Anatomical context of Infant Formula


Associations of Infant Formula with chemical compounds


Gene context of Infant Formula

  • Future studies should examine the therapeutic potential of lactoferrin, perhaps as a supplement in infant formulas [33].
  • In addition, AhR activation by dibenzo[a,h]anthracene, a potent AhR agonist, was significantly suppressed by infant formula and even more by human milk [34].
  • A variety of processed bovine milk products had a PLP content similar to that of fresh bovine milk, whereas infant formulas had lower concentrations, ranging down to undetectable [35].
  • Although current infant formulas closely mimic the ratio of total whey to casein inhuman milk, the concentration of a-lactalbumin (the dominant protein in human milk) is relatively low in formula, whereas beta-lactoglobulin, a protein not found in human milk, is the most dominant whey protein in formula [36].
  • This study examined the presence of substance P and calcitonin-gene-related peptide (CGRP) immunoreactivities in various milks and infant formulas [37].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Infant Formula


  1. Influence of breast-feeding on the bifid flora of the newborn intestine. Beerens, H., Romond, C., Neut, C. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1980) [Pubmed]
  2. Effect of different vitamin A intakes on very-low-birth-weight infants. Koo, W.W., Krug-Wispe, S., Succop, P., Tsang, R.C., Neylan, M. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis from ingestion of a chloride-deficient infant formula: outcome 9 and 10 years later. Malloy, M.H., Graubard, B., Moss, H., McCarthy, M., Gwyn, S., Vietze, P., Willoughby, A., Rhoads, G.G., Berendes, H. Pediatrics (1991) [Pubmed]
  4. High nutrient intakes--the toxicologist's view. Hathcock, J.N. J. Nutr. (1989) [Pubmed]
  5. Blue babies and nitrate-contaminated well water. Knobeloch, L., Salna, B., Hogan, A., Postle, J., Anderson, H. Environ. Health Perspect. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Learning disabilities as a probable consequence of using chloride-deficient infant formula. Silver, L.B., Levinson, R.B., Laskin, C.R., Pilot, L.J. J. Pediatr. (1989) [Pubmed]
  7. Small changes of dietary (n-6) and (n-3)/fatty acid content ration alter phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine fatty acid composition during development of neuronal and glial cells in rats. Jumpsen, J., Lien, E.L., Goh, Y.K., Clandinin, M.T. J. Nutr. (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Bovine growth hormone: human food safety evaluation. Juskevich, J.C., Guyer, C.G. Science (1990) [Pubmed]
  9. Innate recognition of bacteria in human milk is mediated by a milk-derived highly expressed pattern recognition receptor, soluble CD14. Labéta, M.O., Vidal, K., Nores, J.E., Arias, M., Vita, N., Morgan, B.P., Guillemot, J.C., Loyaux, D., Ferrara, P., Schmid, D., Affolter, M., Borysiewicz, L.K., Donnet-Hughes, A., Schiffrin, E.J. J. Exp. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Are long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids essential nutrients in infancy? Makrides, M., Neumann, M., Simmer, K., Pater, J., Gibson, R. Lancet (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Aluminium in infant formulas. Bishop, N., McGraw, M., Ward, N. Lancet (1989) [Pubmed]
  12. The phytoestrogen genistein induces thymic and immune changes: a human health concern? Yellayi, S., Naaz, A., Szewczykowski, M.A., Sato, T., Woods, J.A., Chang, J., Segre, M., Allred, C.D., Helferich, W.G., Cooke, P.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Retinal degeneration in 3-month-old rhesus monkey infants fed a taurine-free human infant formula. Imaki, H., Moretz, R., Wisniewski, H., Neuringer, M., Sturman, J. J. Neurosci. Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  14. Vitamin E status in preterm infants fed human milk or infant formula. Gross, S.J., Gabriel, E. J. Pediatr. (1985) [Pubmed]
  15. Specific identification and targeted characterization of Bifidobacterium lactis from different environmental isolates by a combined multiplex-PCR approach. Ventura, M., Reniero, R., Zink, R. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Reducing parenteral requirement in children with short bowel syndrome: impact of an amino acid-based complete infant formula. Bines, J., Francis, D., Hill, D. J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. Soy-polysaccharide-supplemented soy formula enhances mucosal disaccharidase levels following massive small intestinal resection in rats. Michail, S., Mohammadpour, M., Park, J.H., Vanderhoof, J.A. J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Detection by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of a bovine serum albumin peptide (ABBOS) in infant formulas based on hydrolyzed cow's milk protein. van Beresteijn, E.C., Meijer, R.J. Diabetes Care (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Pharmacokinetics and bactericidal activity of cefuroxime axetil. Ginsburg, C.M., McCracken, G.H., Petruska, M., Olson, K. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1985) [Pubmed]
  20. Thickening of infant feedings for therapy of gastroesophageal reflux. Orenstein, S.R., Magill, H.L., Brooks, P. J. Pediatr. (1987) [Pubmed]
  21. Growth and development of preterm infants fed infant formulas containing docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid. Clandinin, M.T., Van Aerde, J.E., Merkel, K.L., Harris, C.L., Springer, M.A., Hansen, J.W., Diersen-Schade, D.A. J. Pediatr. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Dietary 20:4n-6 and 22:6n-3 modulates the profile of long- and very-long-chain fatty acids, rhodopsin content, and kinetics in developing photoreceptor cells. Suh, M., Wierzbicki, A.A., Lien, E.L., Clandinin, M.T. Pediatr. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. Visual maturation of term infants fed long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid-supplemented or control formula for 12 mo. Birch, E.E., Castañeda, Y.S., Wheaton, D.H., Birch, D.G., Uauy, R.D., Hoffman, D.R. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. Genistein inhibits intestinal cell proliferation in piglets. Chen, A.C., Berhow, M.A., Tappenden, K.A., Donovan, S.M. Pediatr. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. Decreased citrate improves iron availability from infant formula: application of an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell culture model. Glahn, R.P., Lai, C., Hsu, J., Thompson, J.F., Guo, M., Van Campen, D.R. J. Nutr. (1998) [Pubmed]
  26. Increase in plasma phospholipid docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids as a reflection of their intake and mode of administration. Liu, C.C., Carlson, S.E., Rhodes, P.G., Rao, V.S., Meydrech, E.F. Pediatr. Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  27. Lymphatic fatty acids from rats fed human milk and formula containing coconut oil. Roche, M.E., Clark, R.M. Lipids (1994) [Pubmed]
  28. Importance of arachidonic acid in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid-supplemented infant formula. Kuratko, C., Arterburn, L., Hoffman, J.P., Nelson, E.B. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2005) [Pubmed]
  29. Relative importance of carbohydrate and protein sources in the differential effects of soy-based vs casein-based formulas on bone minerals in rats. Shahkhalili, Y., Mettraux, C. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1991) [Pubmed]
  30. Choline and choline esters in human and rat milk and in infant formulas. Holmes-McNary, M.Q., Cheng, W.L., Mar, M.H., Fussell, S., Zeisel, S.H. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1996) [Pubmed]
  31. Essential fat requirements of preterm infants. Uauy, R., Hoffman, D.R. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2000) [Pubmed]
  32. Copper, iron, zinc, and manganese in dietary supplements, infant formulas, and ready-to-eat breakfast cereals. Johnson, M.A., Smith, M.M., Edmonds, J.T. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1998) [Pubmed]
  33. Human milk lactoferrin inactivates two putative colonization factors expressed by Haemophilus influenzae. Qiu, J., Hendrixson, D.R., Baker, E.N., Murphy, T.F., St Geme, J.W., Plaut, A.G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  34. Induction of cytochrome P450 1A by cow milk-based formula: a comparative study between human milk and formula. Xu, H., Rajesan, R., Harper, P., Kim, R.B., Lonnerdal, B., Yang, M., Uematsu, S., Hutson, J., Watson-MacDonell, J., Ito, S. Br. J. Pharmacol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  35. High levels of a parathyroid hormone-like protein in milk. Budayr, A.A., Halloran, B.P., King, J.C., Diep, D., Nissenson, R.A., Strewler, G.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1989) [Pubmed]
  36. Infant formulas with increased concentrations of alpha-lactalbumin. Lien, E.L. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2003) [Pubmed]
  37. Immunoreactive substance P and calcitonin-gene-related peptide (CGRP) in rat milk and in human milk and infant formulas. Ducroc, R., Rubio, S., Garzon, B., Brunel-Riveau, B., Couraud, J.Y. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1995) [Pubmed]
  38. Selenate fortification of infant formulas improves the selenium status of preterm infants. Tyrala, E.E., Borschel, M.W., Jacobs, J.R. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1996) [Pubmed]
  39. Glycomacropeptide and alpha-lactalbumin supplementation of infant formula affects growth and nutritional status in infant rhesus monkeys. Kelleher, S.L., Chatterton, D., Nielsen, K., Lönnerdal, B. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2003) [Pubmed]
  40. Risk of enamel fluorosis associated with fluoride supplementation, infant formula, and fluoride dentifrice use. Pendrys, D.G., Katz, R.V. Am. J. Epidemiol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  41. Taurine in pediatric nutrition: review and update. Gaull, G.E. Pediatrics (1989) [Pubmed]
  42. Determination of free myo-inositol in milk and infant formula by high-performance liquid chromatography. Indyk, H.E., Woollard, D.C. The Analyst. (1994) [Pubmed]
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