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Chemical Compound Review

fluoride     fluoride

Synonyms: Fluorides, Perfluoride, Fluorine 19, Fluorine ion, fluoride ion, ...
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Disease relevance of fluoride

  • A case of fluoride poisoning was defined as an illness consisting of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, or numbness or tingling of the face or extremities that began between May 21 and 23 [1].
  • Fluoride calcium should be considered a useful adjunct in the treatment for multiple myeloma [2].
  • Acute fluoride poisoning produces a clinical syndrome characterized by nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and paresthesias [1].
  • Here we describe an enzymatic reaction that occurs in the bacterium Streptomyces cattleya and which catalyses the conversion of fluoride ion and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) to 5'-fluoro-5'-deoxyfluoroadenosine (5'-FDA) [3].
  • The cyc- variants of S49 lymphoma cells have served as powerful tools for studying the components and mechanisms of hormone-induced adenylate cyclase stimulation, as these cells are deficient in the guanine nucleotide regulatory site (Ns) mediating hormone, guanine nucleotide, cholera toxin and fluoride-induced stimulations of the enzyme [4].

Psychiatry related information on fluoride


High impact information on fluoride


Chemical compound and disease context of fluoride


Biological context of fluoride

  • Although the more inhibitory of the four diastereoisomers of Soman are hydrolyzed least rapidly, a column of sufficient length will accomplish 95 percent hydrolysis whether measured by fluoride release or loss of cholinesterase-inhibiting power [18].
  • This phenomenon may be related to an increase of fluoride in the food chain, especially from the use of fluoridated water in food processing, increased use of infant formulas with measurable fluoride content, and even unintentional ingestion of fluoride dentifrices [19].
  • Direct binding of sigma(54) Region I to activator in the presence of ADP-aluminum fluoride was shown and inferred from in vivo suppression genetics [20].
  • CONCLUSIONS--We found a small but significant increase in the risk of hip fracture in both men and women exposed to artificial fluoridation at 1 ppm, suggesting that low levels of fluoride may increase the risk of hip fracture in the elderly [21].
  • Fluoride-mediated activation of the respiratory burst in human neutrophils. A reversible process [22].

Anatomical context of fluoride


Associations of fluoride with other chemical compounds

  • Enzyme activities were determined before restriction and at monthly intervals for 3 mo for the unstimulated enzyme (basal) and in the presence of maximally stimulating concentrations of glucagon, ACTH, epinephrine, and fluoride [28].
  • Aluminium fluoride was observed to stabilize the association of GroES with GroEL, with a substantial release of free energy (-46 kcal/mol) [29].
  • In contrast, papillary muscles responded normally to calcium, and adenylate cyclase responses to fluoride and histamine were normal [30].
  • The fluoride variant of human butyrylcholinesterase owes its name to the observation that it is resistant to inhibition by 0.050 mM sodium fluoride in the in vitro assay [13].
  • Cellulose microfibrils with an electron diffraction pattern characteristic of crystalline native cellulose I have been assembled abiotically by means of a cellulase-catalyzed polymerization of beta-cellobiosyl fluoride substrate monomer in acetonitrile/acetate buffer [31].
  • Two cleft-like anion receptors have been synthesised that contain indole hydrogen-bond donors and show fluoride selectively in a DMSO-water solution with crystallographic studies showing a 'twisted' binding mode for fluoride in the solid state [32].
  • The resulting aluminium-based fluoride still possesses a high-surface-area of 330 m2 g(-1) [33].

Gene context of fluoride

  • Disruption of ARF1 causes slow growth, cold sensitivity, and sensitivity to normally sublethal concentrations of fluoride ion in the medium [34].
  • These mutants display a number of phenotypes, including conditional lethality at high or low temperature, defects in glycosylation of invertase, dominant lethality, fluoride sensitivity, and synthetic lethality with the arf2 null mutation [35].
  • The effect of fluoride on phospholipase D (PLD) activation was studied using in vitro culture of Saos-2, MG-63 osteosarcoma cells, and normal osteoblast-like cells derived from human bone explants [36].
  • The addition of aluminium fluoride locks coatomer onto Golgi membranes and also decreases the binding kinetics of both ARF1 and ARFGAP1, suggesting that these proteins function in concert to mediate sorting and vesicle formation [37].
  • Fluoride at mitogenic doses induces a sustained activation of p44mapk, but not p42mapk, in human TE85 osteosarcoma cells [38].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of fluoride

  • Whether or not lower doses or intermittent fluoride therapy will prove to be effective in patients who have already sustained fractures, is also being actively investigated in controlled clinical trials [25].
  • The role of the practicing physician in the provision of caries prevention methods is a very active one, with physicians prescribing fluoride supplements, counseling on diet, and providing oral hygiene education [39].
  • As part of an educational program in preventive dentistry for family medicine residents, we evaluated changes in systemic fluoride prescribing habits related to newly acquired knowledge [40].
  • BACKGROUND: Although a recent bioassay showed increased frequency of bone cancer in rats with high oral intake of fluoride, the data are reported as equivocal evidence of carcinogenicity [41].
  • Fluoride in drinking water and risk of hip fracture in the UK: a case-control study [42].


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  2. Multiple-myeloma bone disease. The comparative effect of sodium fluoride and calcium carbonate or placebo. Kyle, R.A., Jowsey, J., Kelly, P.J., Taves, D.R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1975) [Pubmed]
  3. Biochemistry: biosynthesis of an organofluorine molecule. O'Hagan, D., Schaffrath, C., Cobb, S.L., Hamilton, J.T., Murphy, C.D. Nature (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. A nucleotide regulatory site for somatostatin inhibition of adenylate cyclase in S49 lymphoma cells. Jakobs, K.H., Aktories, K., Schultz, G. Nature (1983) [Pubmed]
  5. Dementia, aluminium, and fluoride. Forbes, W.F., Hayward, L.M., Agwani, N. Lancet (1991) [Pubmed]
  6. A genetic study of platelet adenylate cyclase activity: evidence for a single major locus effect in fluoride-stimulated activity. Devor, E.J., Cloninger, C.R., Hoffman, P.L., Tabakoff, B. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. Effect of long-term exposure to fluoride in drinking water on risks of bone fractures. Li, Y., Liang, C., Slemenda, C.W., Ji, R., Sun, S., Cao, J., Emsley, C.L., Ma, F., Wu, Y., Ying, P., Zhang, Y., Gao, S., Zhang, W., Katz, B.P., Niu, S., Cao, S., Johnston, C.C. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Chronic electroconvulsive treatment augments coupling of the GTP-binding protein Gs to the catalytic moiety of adenylyl cyclase in a manner similar to that seen with chronic antidepressant drugs. Ozawa, H., Rasenick, M.M. J. Neurochem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  9. Caries risk assessment in a longitudinal discrimination study. Leverett, D.H., Proskin, H.M., Featherstone, J.D., Adair, S.M., Eisenberg, A.D., Mundorff-Shrestha, S.A., Shields, C.P., Shaffer, C.L., Billings, R.J. J. Dent. Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. Effect of fluoride treatment on the fracture rate in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Riggs, B.L., Hodgson, S.F., O'Fallon, W.M., Chao, E.Y., Wahner, H.W., Muhs, J.M., Cedel, S.L., Melton, L.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. Translational initiation factor and ribosome association with the cytoskeletal framework fraction from HeLa cells. Howe, J.G., Hershey, J.W. Cell (1984) [Pubmed]
  12. Decreased catecholamine sensitivity and beta-adrenergic-receptor density in failing human hearts. Bristow, M.R., Ginsburg, R., Minobe, W., Cubicciotti, R.S., Sageman, W.S., Lurie, K., Billingham, M.E., Harrison, D.C., Stinson, E.B. N. Engl. J. Med. (1982) [Pubmed]
  13. Identification of two different point mutations associated with the fluoride-resistant phenotype for human butyrylcholinesterase. Nogueira, C.P., Bartels, C.F., McGuire, M.C., Adkins, S., Lubrano, T., Rubinstein, H.M., Lightstone, H., Van der Spek, A.F., Lockridge, O., La Du, B.N. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1992) [Pubmed]
  14. Alterations in components of adenylate cyclase associated with transformation of chicken embryo fibroblasts by Rous sarcoma virus. Woolkalis, M.J., Nakada, M.T., Manning, D.R. J. Biol. Chem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  15. Glycosyl fluorides can function as substrates for nucleotide phosphosugar-dependent glycosyltransferases. Lougheed, B., Ly, H.D., Wakarchuk, W.W., Withers, S.G. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. Attainment of therapeutic fluoride levels in serum without major side effects using a slow-release preparation of sodium fluoride in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Pak, C.Y., Sakhaee, K., Gallagher, C., Parcel, C., Peterson, R., Zerwekh, J.E., Lemke, M., Britton, F., Hsu, M.C., Adams, B. J. Bone Miner. Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  17. Reversible impairment of glucose tolerance in patients with endemic fluorosis. Fluoride Collaborative Study Group. Trivedi, N., Mithal, A., Gupta, S.K., Godbole, M.M. Diabetologia (1993) [Pubmed]
  18. Hydrolysis of nerve gas by squid-type diisopropyl phosphorofluoridate hydrolyzing enzyme on agarose resin. Hoskin, F.C., Roush, A.H. Science (1982) [Pubmed]
  19. Fluorides and the changing prevalence of dental caries. Leverett, D.H. Science (1982) [Pubmed]
  20. Binding of transcriptional activators to sigma 54 in the presence of the transition state analog ADP-aluminum fluoride: insights into activator mechanochemical action. Chaney, M., Grande, R., Wigneshweraraj, S.R., Cannon, W., Casaz, P., Gallegos, M.T., Schumacher, J., Jones, S., Elderkin, S., Dago, A.E., Morett, E., Buck, M. Genes Dev. (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. Hip fractures and fluoridation in Utah's elderly population. Danielson, C., Lyon, J.L., Egger, M., Goodenough, G.K. JAMA (1992) [Pubmed]
  22. Fluoride-mediated activation of the respiratory burst in human neutrophils. A reversible process. Curnutte, J.T., Babior, B.M., Karnovsky, M.L. J. Clin. Invest. (1979) [Pubmed]
  23. Altered Gs and adenylate cyclase activity in human GH-secreting pituitary adenomas. Vallar, L., Spada, A., Giannattasio, G. Nature (1987) [Pubmed]
  24. Asymmetrical displacement currents in nerve cell membrane and effect of internal fluoride. Kostyuk, P.G., Krishtal, O.A., Pidoplichko, V.I. Nature (1977) [Pubmed]
  25. Sodium fluoride therapy of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Kleerekoper, M., Mendlovic, D.B. Endocr. Rev. (1993) [Pubmed]
  26. Both photons and fluoride ions excite limulus ventral photoreceptors. Fein, A., Corson, D.W. Science (1979) [Pubmed]
  27. Relationship of phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate hydrolysis to calcium mobilization and functional activation in fluoride-treated neutrophils. English, D., Debono, D.J., Gabig, T.G. J. Clin. Invest. (1987) [Pubmed]
  28. Enhanced activity of hormone-sensitive adenylate cyclase during dietary restriction in the rat: dependence on age and relation to cell size. Cooper, B., Weinblatt, F., Gregerman, R.I. J. Clin. Invest. (1977) [Pubmed]
  29. Role of the gamma-phosphate of ATP in triggering protein folding by GroEL-GroES: function, structure and energetics. Chaudhry, C., Farr, G.W., Todd, M.J., Rye, H.S., Brunger, A.T., Adams, P.D., Horwich, A.L., Sigler, P.B. EMBO J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  30. Myocardial performance and extracellular ionized calcium in a severely failing human heart. Ginsburg, R., Esserman, L.J., Bristow, M.R. Ann. Intern. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  31. Assembly of synthetic cellulose I. Lee, J.H., Brown, R.M., Kuga, S., Shoda, S., Kobayashi, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  32. Isophthalamides and 2,6-dicarboxamidopyridines with pendant indole groups: a 'twisted' binding mode for selective fluoride recognition. Bates, G.W., Gale, P.A., Light, M.E. Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (2007) [Pubmed]
  33. Coupling sol-gel synthesis and microwave-assisted techniques: a new route from amorphous to crystalline high-surface-area aluminium fluoride. Dambournet, D., Eltanamy, G., Vimont, A., Lavalley, J.C., Goupil, J.M., Demourgues, A., Durand, E., Majimel, J., Rudiger, S., Kemnitz, E., Winfield, J.M., Tressaud, A. Chemistry (2008) [Pubmed]
  34. ADP ribosylation factor is an essential protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is encoded by two genes. Stearns, T., Kahn, R.A., Botstein, D., Hoyt, M.A. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  35. Systematic structure-function analysis of the small GTPase Arf1 in yeast. Click, E.S., Stearns, T., Botstein, D. Mol. Biol. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  36. Role of protein kinase C alpha, Arf, and cytoplasmic calcium transients in phospholipase D activation by sodium fluoride in osteoblast-like cells. Bourgoin, S.G., Harbour, D., Poubelle, P.E. J. Bone Miner. Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  37. Spatiotemporal dynamics of the COPI vesicle machinery. Elsner, M., Hashimoto, H., Simpson, J.C., Cassel, D., Nilsson, T., Weiss, M. EMBO Rep. (2003) [Pubmed]
  38. Fluoride at mitogenic doses induces a sustained activation of p44mapk, but not p42mapk, in human TE85 osteosarcoma cells. Wu, L.W., Yoon, H.K., Baylink, D.J., Graves, L.M., Lau, K.H. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1997) [Pubmed]
  39. Physicians and caries prevention. Results of a physician survey on preventive dental services. Gift, H.C., Milton, B., Walsh, V. JAMA (1984) [Pubmed]
  40. Resident physician performance in a continuing education format. Does newly acquired knowledge improve patient care? Pinkerton, R.E., Tinanoff, N., Willms, J.L., Tapp, J.T. JAMA (1980) [Pubmed]
  41. Cancer incidence and mortality in workers exposed to fluoride. Grandjean, P., Olsen, J.H., Jensen, O.M., Juel, K. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1992) [Pubmed]
  42. Fluoride in drinking water and risk of hip fracture in the UK: a case-control study. Hillier, S., Cooper, C., Kellingray, S., Russell, G., Hughes, H., Coggon, D. Lancet (2000) [Pubmed]
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