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MeSH Review

Fluorosis, Dental

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Disease relevance of Fluorosis, Dental


Psychiatry related information on Fluorosis, Dental


High impact information on Fluorosis, Dental

  • In areas where fluoride concentrations exceeded 4 mg/l the prevalence of dental fluorosis reached 100% [5].
  • Ire1 levels appeared induced by fluoride treatment, indicating that ER stress may play a role in dental fluorosis [6].
  • Despite some studies correlating dental fluorosis (DF) and fluoride (F) concentration in dental enamel, no information is available about DF and dentin F concentration [7].
  • In the last two decades, increasing fluoride exposure in various forms and vehicles is most likely the explanation for an increase in the prevalence of mild-to-moderate forms of dental fluorosis in many communities, not the least in those in which controlled water fluoridation has been established [8].
  • However, in Beni Mellal, more than 96% of the dentate subjects examined were free of dental fluorosis, and the CFI of 0.02 was considered not significant [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Fluorosis, Dental

  • About 36% of all children had dental fluorosis, ranging from 12.2 in Cadillac to 51.2 in Richmond (1.2 ppm) [10].
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between dental fluorosis, one of the most common developmental tooth enamel defects, and amoxicillin use during early childhood [11].
  • The classification system includes 10 scores designed to characterize the degree of dental fluorosis affecting buccal/lingual and occlusal surfaces [12].

Biological context of Fluorosis, Dental


Anatomical context of Fluorosis, Dental


Gene context of Fluorosis, Dental

  • The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 100%, 92% of all teeth exhibited a TFI score of 4 or higher, and 50% of the children had pitting or more severe enamel damage in at least half the teeth present [22].
  • For each diagnostic syndrome of dental fluorosis, a log-normal distribution was observed on the logarithm of urinary fluoride concentration in students in China. Urinary fluoride content was found to be a primary health indicator of the prevalence of dental fluorosis in the community [23].
  • METHODS: All children were graded for clinical, radiological and dental fluorosis and biochemical estimations were made for serum calcium, serum and urinary fluoride and serum parathyroid hormone [24].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Fluorosis, Dental


  1. Results and conclusions of the National Toxicology Program's rodent carcinogenicity studies with sodium fluoride. Bucher, J.R., Hejtmancik, M.R., Toft, J.D., Persing, R.L., Eustis, S.L., Haseman, J.K. Int. J. Cancer (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. Dental fluorosis: variability among different inbred mouse strains. Everett, E.T., McHenry, M.A., Reynolds, N., Eggertsson, H., Sullivan, J., Kantmann, C., Martinez-Mier, E.A., Warrick, J.M., Stookey, G.K. J. Dent. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Fluoride absorption: the influence of gastric acidity. Whitford, G.M., Pashley, D.H. Calcif. Tissue Int. (1984) [Pubmed]
  4. Environmental and physiological factors affecting dental fluorosis. Angmar-Månsson, B., Whitford, G.M. J. Dent. Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  5. Unsuitability of World Health Organisation guidelines for fluoride concentrations in drinking water in Senegal. Brouwer, I.D., Dirks, O.B., De Bruin, A., Hautvast, J.G. Lancet (1988) [Pubmed]
  6. Fluoride induces endoplasmic reticulum stress in ameloblasts responsible for dental enamel formation. Kubota, K., Lee, D.H., Tsuchiya, M., Young, C.S., Everett, E.T., Martinez-Mier, E.A., Snead, M.L., Nguyen, L., Urano, F., Bartlett, J.D. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Is fluoride concentration in dentin and enamel a good indicator of dental fluorosis? Vieira, A.P., Hancock, R., Limeback, H., Maia, R., Grynpas, M.D. J. Dent. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Dental fluorosis: chemistry and biology. Aoba, T., Fejerskov, O. Crit. Rev. Oral Biol. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. The effects of airborne fluorides on oral conditions in Morocco. Haikel, Y., Cahen, P.M., Turlot, J.C., Frank, R.M. J. Dent. Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  10. Dental caries, fluorosis, and fluoride exposure in Michigan schoolchildren. Szpunar, S.M., Burt, B.A. J. Dent. Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  11. Association of amoxicillin use during early childhood with developmental tooth enamel defects. Hong, L., Levy, S.M., Warren, J.J., Dawson, D.V., Bergus, G.R., Wefel, J.S. Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Clinical appearance of dental fluorosis in permanent teeth in relation to histologic changes. Thylstrup, A., Fejerskov, O. Community dentistry and oral epidemiology. (1978) [Pubmed]
  13. Perceptions of dental fluorosis. Riordan, P.J. J. Dent. Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  14. Cytogenic investigations on leucocytes of cattle intoxicated with fluoride. Leonard, A., Dekundt, G.H., Decat, G., Leonard, E.D. Toxicology (1977) [Pubmed]
  15. Relationship between dental fluorosis and quality of life: a population based study. Michel-Crosato, E., Biazevic, M.G., Crosato, E. Pesquisa odontológica brasileira = Brazilian oral research. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Seasonal variation in fluoride intake: the Iowa fluoride study. Broffitt, B., Levy, S.M., Warren, J.J., Heller, K.E. Journal of public health dentistry. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Industrial fluoride pollution. Chronic fluoride poisoning in Cornwall Island cattle. Krook, L., Maylin, G.A. The Cornell veterinarian. (1979) [Pubmed]
  18. Associations between Intakes of fluoride from beverages during infancy and dental fluorosis of primary teeth. Marshall, T.A., Levy, S.M., Warren, J.J., Broffitt, B., Eichenberger-Gilmore, J.M., Stumbo, P.J. Journal of the American College of Nutrition. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Biological mechanisms of dental fluorosis relevant to the use of fluoride supplements. DenBesten, P.K. Community dentistry and oral epidemiology. (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. Mechanism of toxic action of fluoride in dental fluorosis: whether trimeric G proteins participate in the disturbance of intracellular transport of secretory ameloblast exposed to fluoride. Matsuo, S., Kiyomiya, K., Kurebe, M. Arch. Toxicol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. Effects of fluoride emissions from a modern primary aluminum smelter on a local population of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Suttie, J.S., Dickie, R., Clay, A.B., Nielsen, P., Mahan, W.E., Baumann, D.P., Hamilton, R.J. J. Wildl. Dis. (1987) [Pubmed]
  22. Dental fluorosis in an area of Kenya with 2 ppm fluoride in the drinking water. Manji, F., Baelum, V., Fejerskov, O. J. Dent. Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  23. Health effects of fluoride pollution caused by coal burning. Ando, M., Tadano, M., Yamamoto, S., Tamura, K., Asanuma, S., Watanabe, T., Kondo, T., Sakurai, S., Ji, R., Liang, C., Chen, X., Hong, Z., Cao, S. Sci. Total Environ. (2001) [Pubmed]
  24. Compensatory hyperparathyroidism following high fluoride ingestion - a clinico - biochemical correlation. Gupta, S.K., Khan, T.I., Gupta, R.C., Gupta, A.B., Gupta, K.C., Jain, P., Gupta, A. Indian pediatrics. (2001) [Pubmed]
  25. Risk factors associated with fluorosis in a non-fluoridated population in Norway. Wang, N.J., Gropen, A.M., Ogaard, B. Community dentistry and oral epidemiology. (1997) [Pubmed]
  26. Dental caries and fluorosis in low- and high-fluoride areas in Turkey. Ermiş, R.B., Koray, F., Akdeniz, B.G. Quintessence international. (2003) [Pubmed]
  27. Epidemiologic indices for measuring the clinical manifestations of dental fluorosis: overview and critique. Rozier, R.G. Adv. Dent. Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  28. Vegetarianism and dental fluorosis among children in a high fluoride area of northern Tanzania. Awadia, A.K., Haugejorden, O., Bjorvatn, K., Birkeland, J.M. International journal of paediatric dentistry / the British Paedodontic Society [and] the International Association of Dentistry for Children. (1999) [Pubmed]
  29. The biological effects of fluoride on tooth development: possible use of cell culture systems. Veron, M.H., Couble, M.L. International dental journal. (1992) [Pubmed]
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