The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

P-glycoprotein expression in bladder cancer.

Multi-drug resistance is a phenomenon by which tumor cells express resistance to a variety of chemically unrelated chemotherapeutic drugs. The classical form of multi-drug resistance is mediated through the expression of P-glycoprotein, which acts as an energy dependent drug efflux pump. P-glycoprotein expression was evaluated in 29 cystectomy specimens from patients with bladder cancer with no prior exposure to chemotherapeutic drugs, and in bladder biopsies from 9 subjects before treatment with intravesical doxorubicin. Furthermore, the strategy of circumvention of P-glycoprotein-mediated resistance using the combination of doxorubicin and verapamil intravesically was tested in 5 patients. P-glycoprotein was expressed in 75% of the cystectomy specimens. In the doxorubicin treated patients no correlation was noted between P-glycoprotein expression on the initial tumors and subsequent response to doxorubicin. The pilot trial of verapamil and doxorubicin was well tolerated but did not suggest increased efficacy of this combination. P-glycoprotein can be expressed on bladder cancer cells without prior chemotherapy. The role of P-glycoprotein mediated multi-drug resistance in bladder cancer treatment failure remains to be defined.[1]


  1. P-glycoprotein expression in bladder cancer. Park, J., Shinohara, N., Liebert, M., Noto, L., Flint, A., Grossman, H.B. J. Urol. (1994) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities