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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Involvement of the IRF-1 transcription factor in antiviral responses to interferons.

The mechanisms underlying interferon (IFN)-induced antiviral states are not well understood. Interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) is an IFN-inducible transcriptional activator, whereas IRF-2 suppresses IRF-1 action. The inhibition of encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) replication by IFN-alpha and especially by IFN-gamma was impaired in cells from mice with a null mutation in the IRF-1 gene (IRF-1-/- mice). The IRF-1-/- mice were less resistant than normal mice to EMCV infection, as revealed by accelerated mortality and a larger virus titer in target organs. The absence of IRF-1 did not clearly affect replication of two other types of viruses. Thus, IRF-1 is necessary for the antiviral action of IFNs against some viruses, but IFNs activate multiple activation pathways through diverse target genes to induce the antiviral state.[1]


  1. Involvement of the IRF-1 transcription factor in antiviral responses to interferons. Kimura, T., Nakayama, K., Penninger, J., Kitagawa, M., Harada, H., Matsuyama, T., Tanaka, N., Kamijo, R., Vilcek, J., Mak, T.W. Science (1994) [Pubmed]
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