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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Tumorigenicity study of phloxine (FR 104) in B6C3F1 mice.

The aim of this study was to examine the tumorigenicity of the food colouring phloxine (Food Red 104) in (C57BL/6N x C3H/HeN) F1 mice. Groups of male or female mice received 0, 0.1 and 0.4% phloxine in the diet starting at 6 wk of age for a maximum of 90 wk. Survivals of mice were more than 85% at 64 wk after the start of phloxine administration. Their body weights reached maximum at 48 wk and both male and female mice given 0.1 and 0.4% phloxine weighed significantly more than their respective controls. Tumours developed in 13 organs, the greatest incidence in males being of liver tumours (67.3%), followed by lung tumours (10.9%), lymphomas (9.7%), altered foci of liver (8.4%) and hepatic haemangioma (7.8%). In females, hepatic tumours (11.5%) had the greatest incidence followed by lymphomas (10.8%), pulmonary tumours (8.2%) and hepatic haemangioma (3.2%). In males, the incidence of altered foci and haemangioma in the liver was 19 and 14%, respectively, in the control groups, whereas only 2% occurred in the group given 0.4% phloxine (P < 0.05). It is concluded that average body weights increased significantly in female mice of groups given 0.1 or 0.4% phloxine, compared with body weights of the female controls, and that altered liver foci were significantly reduced in male mice given 0.4% phloxine. There was a significant increase in pituitary tumour incidence in the test groups compared with the control groups.[1]


  1. Tumorigenicity study of phloxine (FR 104) in B6C3F1 mice. Ito, A., Fujimoto, N., Okamoto, T., Ando, Y., Watanabe, H. Food Chem. Toxicol. (1994) [Pubmed]
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