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MeSH Review

Control Groups

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Disease relevance of Control Groups


Psychiatry related information on Control Groups


High impact information on Control Groups

  • The net muscle-protein balance increased by 82 percent over base-line values in the propranolol group (P=0.002), whereas it decreased by 27 percent in the control group (P not significant) [11].
  • RESULTS: There was minimal change in the degree of pain in the lidocaine-only and control groups during and after the treatment period [12].
  • METHODS: We randomly assigned 19 patients with coronary endothelial dysfunction, indicated by abnormal acetylcholine-induced vasoconstriction, to an exercise-training group (10 patients) or a control group (9 patients) [13].
  • Coronary blood-flow reserve (the ratio of the mean peak flow velocity after adenosine infusion to the resting velocity) increased by 29 percent after four weeks of exercise (from 2.8+/-0.2 in the initial study to 3.6+/-0.2 after four weeks; P<0.01 for the comparison with the control group) [13].
  • RESULTS: The mean (+/-SD) global IQ scores were 118+/-17 in the children of mothers who received a tricyclic antidepressant drug, 117+/-17 in those whose mothers received fluoxetine, and 115+/-14 in those in the control group [14].

Chemical compound and disease context of Control Groups


Biological context of Control Groups


Anatomical context of Control Groups

  • The percentage of T lymphocytes bearing histamine Type 2 receptors was lower in the atopic group than in the control group (P less than 0.001), but the percentage of cells with Type 1 receptors was the same in both groups [24].
  • In all 14 fibroblast strains from patients showing excessive production of uric acid (groups 3 and 4), rates of purine synthesis de novo and PP-ribose-P concentrations exceeded values for cells from control groups [25].
  • Compared with the control group, the tamoxifen group (P =.004) and the HRT group (P =.06) had lower concentrations of MI in their basal ganglia [26].
  • Topological analysis of amygdala isosurfaces (population averages) revealed that the isosurface of the cocaine-dependent group undercut the anterior and superior surfaces of the control group, implicating a difference in the corticomedial and basolateral nuclei [27].
  • When endogenous HGF was neutralized with a specific antibody, the number of myocyte cell deaths increased markedly, the infarct area expanded, and the mortality increased to 50%, as compared with a control group in which there was no mortality [28].

Associations of Control Groups with chemical compounds

  • A control group of 165 patients received standard medical treatment and infusion of 5 per cent glucose [29].
  • The mean one-year reduction in serum cholesterol was 10.2 percent in the sitostanol group, as compared with an increase of 0.1 percent in the control group [30].
  • Compared with base-line values, the mean reciprocal of the plasma creatinine level declined significantly in the control group (33 percent; P = 0.0002) but not in the treatment group (6 percent; P not significant) [31].
  • Four (19 per cent) of 21 methylprednisolone-treated, 7 (32 per cent) of 22 dexamethasone-treated, and none of 16 control patients had reversal of shock 24 hours after drug administration (corticosteroid groups vs. control group, P less than 0.05) [5].
  • Four children in the steroid group and seven in the control group eventually required esophageal replacement (P not significant) [32].

Gene context of Control Groups


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Control Groups


  1. Clinical characteristics of patients with ventricular fibrillation during antiarrhythmic drug therapy. Minardo, J.D., Heger, J.J., Miles, W.M., Zipes, D.P., Prystowsky, E.N. N. Engl. J. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  2. The effects on plasma lipoproteins of a prudent weight-reducing diet, with or without exercise, in overweight men and women. Wood, P.D., Stefanick, M.L., Williams, P.T., Haskell, W.L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  3. Hyperhomocysteinemia as a risk factor for deep-vein thrombosis. den Heijer, M., Koster, T., Blom, H.J., Bos, G.M., Briet, E., Reitsma, P.H., Vandenbroucke, J.P., Rosendaal, F.R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Interferon alfa-2a therapy in cryoglobulinemia associated with hepatitis C virus. Misiani, R., Bellavita, P., Fenili, D., Vicari, O., Marchesi, D., Sironi, P.L., Zilio, P., Vernocchi, A., Massazza, M., Vendramin, G. N. Engl. J. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. The effects of high-dose corticosteroids in patients with septic shock. A prospective, controlled study. Sprung, C.L., Caralis, P.V., Marcial, E.H., Pierce, M., Gelbard, M.A., Long, W.M., Duncan, R.C., Tendler, M.D., Karpf, M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  6. Protection by 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) against mammary tumors and leukemia during prolonged feeding of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene to female rats. Silinskas, K.C., Okey, A.B. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1975) [Pubmed]
  7. Randomised trial of low-dose amiodarone in severe congestive heart failure. Grupo de Estudio de la Sobrevida en la Insuficiencia Cardiaca en Argentina (GESICA). Doval, H.C., Nul, D.R., Grancelli, H.O., Perrone, S.V., Bortman, G.R., Curiel, R. Lancet (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. Apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 allele distributions in late-onset Alzheimer's disease and in other amyloid-forming diseases. Saunders, A.M., Schmader, K., Breitner, J.C., Benson, M.D., Brown, W.T., Goldfarb, L., Goldgaber, D., Manwaring, M.G., Szymanski, M.H., McCown, N. Lancet (1993) [Pubmed]
  9. Adherence and mental side effects during hepatitis C treatment with interferon alfa and ribavirin in psychiatric risk groups. Schaefer, M., Schmidt, F., Folwaczny, C., Lorenz, R., Martin, G., Schindlbeck, N., Heldwein, W., Soyka, M., Grunze, H., Koenig, A., Loeschke, K. Hepatology (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Psychological factors associated with primary fibromyalgia syndrome. Ahles, T.A., Yunus, M.B., Riley, S.D., Bradley, J.M., Masi, A.T. Arthritis Rheum. (1984) [Pubmed]
  11. Reversal of catabolism by beta-blockade after severe burns. Herndon, D.N., Hart, D.W., Wolf, S.E., Chinkes, D.L., Wolfe, R.R. N. Engl. J. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Intrathecal methylprednisolone for intractable postherpetic neuralgia. Kotani, N., Kushikata, T., Hashimoto, H., Kimura, F., Muraoka, M., Yodono, M., Asai, M., Matsuki, A. N. Engl. J. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Effect of exercise on coronary endothelial function in patients with coronary artery disease. Hambrecht, R., Wolf, A., Gielen, S., Linke, A., Hofer, J., Erbs, S., Schoene, N., Schuler, G. N. Engl. J. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. Neurodevelopment of children exposed in utero to antidepressant drugs. Nulman, I., Rovet, J., Stewart, D.E., Wolpin, J., Gardner, H.A., Theis, J.G., Kulin, N., Koren, G. N. Engl. J. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. Controlled trial of propranolol for the prevention of recurrent variceal hemorrhage in patients with cirrhosis. Burroughs, A.K., Jenkins, W.J., Sherlock, S., Dunk, A., Walt, R.P., Osuafor, T.O., Mackie, S., Dick, R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  16. Treatment of aplastic anemia with antilymphocyte globulin and methylprednisolone with or without cyclosporine. The German Aplastic Anemia Study Group. Frickhofen, N., Kaltwasser, J.P., Schrezenmeier, H., Raghavachar, A., Vogt, H.G., Herrmann, F., Freund, M., Meusers, P., Salama, A., Heimpel, H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  17. Prophylactic administration of respiratory syncytial virus immune globulin to high-risk infants and young children. The Respiratory Syncytial Virus Immune Globulin Study Group. Groothuis, J.R., Simoes, E.A., Levin, M.J., Hall, C.B., Long, C.E., Rodriguez, W.J., Arrobio, J., Meissner, H.C., Fulton, D.R., Welliver, R.C. N. Engl. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  18. Serum levels of immunoglobulin and complement in giant-cell arteritis. Malmvall, B.E., Bengtsson, B.A., Kaijser, B., Nilsson, L.A., Alestig, K. JAMA (1976) [Pubmed]
  19. Decreased insulin sensitivity of forearm muscle in myotonic dystrophy. Moxley, R.T., Griggs, R.C., Goldblatt, D., VanGelder, V., Herr, B.E., Thiel, R. J. Clin. Invest. (1978) [Pubmed]
  20. Oral androstenedione administration and serum testosterone concentrations in young men. Leder, B.Z., Longcope, C., Catlin, D.H., Ahrens, B., Schoenfeld, D.A., Finkelstein, J.S. JAMA (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. An evaluation of several biochemical markers for bone formation and resorption in a protocol utilizing cyclical parathyroid hormone and calcitonin therapy for osteoporosis. Hodsman, A.B., Fraher, L.J., Ostbye, T., Adachi, J.D., Steer, B.M. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  22. Anti-p53 antibodies in sera of workers occupationally exposed to vinyl chloride. Trivers, G.E., Cawley, H.L., DeBenedetti, V.M., Hollstein, M., Marion, M.J., Bennett, W.P., Hoover, M.L., Prives, C.C., Tamburro, C.C., Harris, C.C. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1995) [Pubmed]
  23. Prevention of pre-eclampsia by early antiplatelet therapy. Beaufils, M., Uzan, S., Donsimoni, R., Colau, J.C. Lancet (1985) [Pubmed]
  24. Abnormal histamine-induced suppressor-cell function in atopic subjects. Beer, D.J., Osband, M.E., McCaffrey, R.P., Soter, N.A., Rocklin, R.E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1982) [Pubmed]
  25. Patterns of phosphoribosylpyrophosphate and ribose-5-phosphate concentration and generation in fibroblasts from patients with gout and purine overproduction. Becker, M.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1976) [Pubmed]
  26. The effects of tamoxifen and estrogen on brain metabolism in elderly women. Ernst, T., Chang, L., Cooray, D., Salvador, C., Jovicich, J., Walot, I., Boone, K., Chlebowski, R. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (2002) [Pubmed]
  27. Decreased absolute amygdala volume in cocaine addicts. Makris, N., Gasic, G.P., Seidman, L.J., Goldstein, J.M., Gastfriend, D.R., Elman, I., Albaugh, M.D., Hodge, S.M., Ziegler, D.A., Sheahan, F.S., Caviness, V.S., Tsuang, M.T., Kennedy, D.N., Hyman, S.E., Rosen, B.R., Breiter, H.C. Neuron (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. Myocardial protection from ischemia/reperfusion injury by endogenous and exogenous HGF. Nakamura, T., Mizuno, S., Matsumoto, K., Sawa, Y., Matsuda, H., Nakamura, T. J. Clin. Invest. (2000) [Pubmed]
  29. Effect of sodium nitroprusside on mortality in acute myocardial infarction. Durrer, J.D., Lie, K.I., van Capelle, F.J., Durrer, D. N. Engl. J. Med. (1982) [Pubmed]
  30. Reduction of serum cholesterol with sitostanol-ester margarine in a mildly hypercholesterolemic population. Miettinen, T.A., Puska, P., Gylling, H., Vanhanen, H., Vartiainen, E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  31. A randomized trial of methylprednisolone and chlorambucil in idiopathic membranous nephropathy. Ponticelli, C., Zucchelli, P., Passerini, P., Cagnoli, L., Cesana, B., Pozzi, C., Pasquali, S., Imbasciati, E., Grassi, C., Redaelli, B. N. Engl. J. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  32. A controlled trial of corticosteroids in children with corrosive injury of the esophagus. Anderson, K.D., Rouse, T.M., Randolph, J.G. N. Engl. J. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  33. Kupffer cell-dependent TNF-alpha signaling mediates injury in the arterialized small-for-size liver transplantation in the mouse. Tian, Y., Jochum, W., Georgiev, P., Moritz, W., Graf, R., Clavien, P.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  34. Molecular genetic analysis in mild hyperhomocysteinemia: a common mutation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene is a genetic risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Kluijtmans, L.A., van den Heuvel, L.P., Boers, G.H., Frosst, P., Stevens, E.M., van Oost, B.A., den Heijer, M., Trijbels, F.J., Rozen, R., Blom, H.J. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  35. Mullerian inhibiting substance suppresses tumor growth in the C3(1)T antigen transgenic mouse mammary carcinoma model. Gupta, V., Carey, J.L., Kawakubo, H., Muzikansky, A., Green, J.E., Donahoe, P.K., MacLaughlin, D.T., Maheswaran, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  36. Keratin 8 and 18 mutations are risk factors for developing liver disease of multiple etiologies. Ku, N.O., Darling, J.M., Krams, S.M., Esquivel, C.O., Keeffe, E.B., Sibley, R.K., Lee, Y.M., Wright, T.L., Omary, M.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  37. Effect of pravastatin on outcomes after cardiac transplantation. Kobashigawa, J.A., Katznelson, S., Laks, H., Johnson, J.A., Yeatman, L., Wang, X.M., Chia, D., Terasaki, P.I., Sabad, A., Cogert, G.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  38. The effects of treatment with interleukin-1 alpha on platelet recovery after high-dose carboplatin. Smith, J.W., Longo, D.L., Alvord, W.G., Janik, J.E., Sharfman, W.H., Gause, B.L., Curti, B.D., Creekmore, S.P., Holmlund, J.T., Fenton, R.G. N. Engl. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  39. A randomized clinical trial of the effect of deliberate perioperative increase of oxygen delivery on mortality in high-risk surgical patients. Boyd, O., Grounds, R.M., Bennett, E.D. JAMA (1993) [Pubmed]
  40. Effects of formaldehyde on the mucous membranes and lungs. A study of an industrial population. Horvath, E.P., Anderson, H., Pierce, W.E., Hanrahan, L., Wendlick, J.D. JAMA (1988) [Pubmed]
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