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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Enzymes of glutathione synthesis in dog skeletal muscles and their response to training.

The glutathione synthesizing enzymes, gamma-glutamyl cysteinyl synthetase and glutathione synthetase, were found in all skeletal muscles studied in dogs. Both occurred also in the liver, but only the former in the lung. The influence of physical training on these enzyme activities was also investigated. For 30 weeks the dogs ran 5 days week-1 on a treadmill at a 15 degrees uphill grade. A 1.5- to 2-fold increase in the gamma-glutamyl cysteinyl synthetase and 3-fold increase in the glutathione synthetase activities was observed in muscles affected by the training procedure (m. triceps, m. extensor carpi radialis and m. gastrocnemius). No training effect could be observed in the splenius and longissimus dorsi muscles or in the liver. The training increased total glutathione levels in the lung and gastrocnemius muscle as well as in the plasma. Glutathione disulfide levels were not altered. Acute physical exercise significantly decreased the plasma total glutathione concentrations in the trained dogs. The results indicate a training responsive adaptation of glutathione system in skeletal muscle.[1]


  1. Enzymes of glutathione synthesis in dog skeletal muscles and their response to training. Marin, E., Kretzschmar, M., Arokoski, J., Hänninen, O., Klinger, W. Acta Physiol. Scand. (1993) [Pubmed]
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