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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Structure, inheritance, and expression of hybrid poplar (Populus trichocarpa x Populus deltoides) phenylalanine ammonia-lyase genes.

A heterologous probe encoding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) was used to identify PAL clones in cDNA libraries made with RNA from young leaf tissue of two Populus deltoides x P. trichocarpa F1 hybrid clones. Sequence analysis of a 2.4-kb cDNA confirmed its identity as a full-length PAl clone. The predicted amino acid sequence is conserved in comparison with that of PAL genes from several other plants. Southern blot analysis of popular genomic DNA from parental and hybrid individuals, restriction site polymorphism in PAL cDNA clones, and sequence heterogeneity in the 3' ends of several cDNA clones suggested that PAL is encoded by at least two genes that can be distinguished by HindIII restriction site polymorphisms. Clones containing each type of PAL gene were isolated from a poplar genomic library. Analysis of the segregation of PAL-specific HindIII restriction fragment-length polymorphisms demonstrated the existence of two independently segregating PAL loci, one of which was mapped to a linkage group of the poplar genetic map. Developmentally regulated PAL expression in poplar was analyzed using RNA blots. Highest expression was observed in young stems, apical buds, and young leaves. Expression was lower in older stems and undetectable in mature leaves. Cellular localization of PAL expression by in situ hybridization showed very high levels of expression in subepidermal cells of leaves early during leaf development. In stems and petioles, expression was associated with subepidermal cells and vascular tissues.[1]


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