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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Shc is the predominant signaling molecule coupling insulin receptors to activation of guanine nucleotide releasing factor and p21ras-GTP formation.

Insulin stimulates tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and She in Rat1 fibroblasts overexpressing wild type insulin receptors. We investigated the relative role of IRS-1 and She in insulin activation of guanine nucleotide releasing factor (GNRF) and p21ras-GTP formation. The time course of insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 was rapid, whereas Shc phosphorylation was relatively slow. Growth factor receptor bound protein-2 (Grb2) associated with IRS-1 rapidly and gradually dissociated after 5 min, whereas Grb2 association with Shc was slower and reached a maximum at 10 min after insulin stimulation. Thus, the kinetics of Grb2 association with IRS-1 and She corresponded closely to the time course of tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 and Shc, respectively. Importantly, 3-13-fold more Grb2 was associated with Shc than with IRS-1. In addition, the kinetics of insulin-stimulated GNRF activity and p21ras-GTP formation corresponded more closely to the time course of Shc phosphorylation than to the kinetics of IRS-1 phosphorylation. Furthermore, immunoprecipitation of Shc proteins from cell lysates of insulin-stimulated cells removed 67% of the GNRF activity, whereas precipitation of IRS-1 had a negligible effect on GNRF activity. Thus, although both IRS-1 and Shc associate with Grb2, the current results indicate that Shc plays a more important role than IRS-1 in insulin stimulation of GNRF activity and subsequent p21ras-GTP formation.[1]


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